Journal of Cytology & Histology

ISSN: 2157-7099

Open Access

Pharmacological options in the treatment of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal symptoms


Felix-Martin Werner and Rafael Coveñas

Schizophrenia is treated by second-generation antipsychotic drugs, which are mostly D2 and 5-HT2A antagonists, and partly by first-generation antipsychotic drugs. Extrapyramidal symptoms, for example dyskinesia, dystonia or parkinsonism can occur as a consequence of the D2 receptor blockade. The functions of classical neurotransmitters in the mesolimbic and extrapyramidal systems are described, and neural networks are added. A D2 receptor blockade leads to a dopaminergic-cholinergic neurotransmitter imbalance in the extrapyramidal system. Pharmacologial options to treat transiently extrapyramidal symptoms are M4 antagonists, GABAA agonists and NMDA antagonists. The development of newer second-generation antipsychotic drug such as aripiprazole and cariprazine reduces the frequency and severeness of extrapyramidal symptoms, because these antipsychotic drugs have a partial agonism at the D2 receptor.

Share this article

Google Scholar citation report
Citations: 2334

Journal of Cytology & Histology received 2334 citations as per Google Scholar report

Journal of Cytology & Histology peer review process verified at publons

Indexed In

arrow_upward arrow_upward