Bibhas CM, Subas CD, Gitanjali M, and Narahari NP
Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne infectious disease spreading very fast from person to person, which affect the health as well as socioeconomic conditions harshly. Though varieties of antitubercular drugs (ATDs) are available for its treatment, associated stern side effects restrict the patients to receive complete therapeutic benefits. Moreover, emergence of drug- resistant tuberculosis and co-infection of TB with HIV further worsen the situations. Polymeric formulations are introduced for progressive and long-term delivery of therapeutic agents, but owing to their noted limitations, performance is not up to the mark. In this juxtaposition, lipid based nano-formulations are introduced as an alternative to the polymic formulations in the management of TB with an intention to overcome side effects related to drugs along with limitations of polymeric formulations. The lipid based formulations comprise nanoemulsions, solid-lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), nano-structured lipid carriers (NLCs), liposomes, and niosomal systems, etc.
Liposomes have more promising antitubercular activity as its intended for targeted drug delivery especially to the infected part. Further mannosylation of liposomes offers tremendous results in TB chemotherapy as it directly binds to mannose receptors available on the surface of alveolar macrophages resulting mycobacterium destruction. Niosomes may have superior drug targeting ability, chemical stability, osmotic activeness and in vivo activity in comparison to that of liposomes. SLNs and manosylated SLNs are the advanced form of the lipid formulations which enhance the drug uptake at the infected organ and show significant in vivo anti-tubercular activity with reduced toxicity. Moreover, NLCs shows its satisfactory potential against MTb along with drug targeting action. Advancement on the development of miscellaneous or other vesicular lipid formulations are not encouraging in the field of tubercular chemotherapy. Hence, lipid based formulations could be successfully employed for targeted delivery of ATDs with promising anti-tubercular activity.
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