Special issue on Critical Care and Cancer Treatment |

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Special issue on Critical Care and Cancer Treatment


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2021 Conference Announcement on Pharmacology & Drug Discovery

Cathrine Lewis

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Short Communication

Pages: 2 - 2

Critically caring for Spatial Computing

Bradley R Chesham

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Short Communication

Pages: 3 - 3

Dunning-Kruger Effect and it is meaning at critical care and emergencies.

Evangelia Michailidou


 BACKGROUND: The Dunning-Kruger effect is a kind of cog­nitive bias in which people think that they are smarter and more capable than they are. Essentially, low-skilled people don’t have the skills needed to understand their own incom­petence. The combination of poor self-awareness and low cog­nitive ability leads to their own abilities being overestimated.

OBJECTIVE: While work analyzing Dunning-Kruger metrics clearly identifying the presence or absence of the test, the mag­nitude of the outcome has not been determined. Doctors can also try to address their own Dunning-Kruger impact by mov­ing on to further study. “The result is due to the lack of exper­tise, and the answer to the lack of competence is to learn more abilities. “Young doctors should also be mindful of the Dun­ning-Kruger influence to be conscious of maintaining a sense of humility. “, as they achieve a preliminary understanding of functioning, always hang on to it like the tree of life because it’s so much work going through and overhauling. Experience teaches us to keep certain idling options in the past.

CONCLUSION: Doctors who want to be as effective as possible during a crisis and have their team effectively can develop the skills needed to manage the Dunning-Kruger phenomenon when times are calm and operations are nor­mal. Further studies are needed to define education, explain variable results, and confirm clinical benefit through further analysis of the phenomenon targeted at critical care and emergencies.

Short Communication

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Latest developments and new challenges for Cancer patient in Intensive Care Unit

Evangelia Michail Michailidou*

It has been believed for years that cancer patients have not been referred to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) because they have serious and potentially reversible acute illnesses. Fortunately, a variety of tests have shown that this is not the case. Today, the number of cancer patients in ICUs around the world is rising every year, and both longevity and quality of life are growing in the same way.

This progress is due to several causes, from progress in anti-tumour therapy to improved patient care in the ICU. We are working towards an individualized and dynamic approach that will be tailored to the form of tumor and the immune response of the patient. The prognosis of vital cancer patients is time-dependent and so ICU-intensive patients must face the difficulty of making a successful selection of patients for early admission and efficient diagnosis and care. Oncological and haematological disorders are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide.

In view of the reality that cancer therapies have improved their effectiveness, correlated with stronger prognosis and increased life expectancy, it is foreseeable that the amount of cancer patients needing admission to ICU would continue to rise in the coming years, constituting an area of compulsory continuing education for intensive care staff.

Observational findings have demonstrated an increase, not only in terms of survival but also in terms of the quality of life of cancer patients seeking admission to the ICU. However, this is also notably worse than that of the general public at 3 and 12 months post-hospital discharge, particularly in haematological patients. Ageing, low functional status prior to ICU entry, and higher levels of multi-organ loss during ICU stay are independent predictors of lower quality of life.

A research published in France revealed comparable health results, with hospital mortality rates, 3-month mortality and 1-year mortality of 39%, 47% and 57% respectively (Azoulay et al. 2013). These findings are well away from classical research, which posed unacceptably high mortality rates that did not warrant intensive control of these populations.

There is no question that the change in the prognosis of cancer patients in ICU is multifactorial. Awareness of these variables is important for patient management and a challenge for sustainable change. Five primary elements can be highlighted:

New anti-tumor treatments

Health and surgical care of cancer patients have improved dramatically. Chemotherapy in ICU, which is unimaginable until reasonably recently, can be a therapeutic alternative in selected critical patients. Treatment of tumor cells gradually targeted as shown by immunotherapy is usually successful and well tolerated. Laparoscopic surgeries reduced the duration and postoperative complications of several tumors. Also the most extreme procedures, such as cytoreductive surgery and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy, involve a brief ICU stay when conducted by experienced teams.

Requirements for entry to the ICU

We provide a better variety of patients who will benefit from access to the ICU. This is attributed, among other factors, to better cooperation between oncologists, haematologists and intensifiers in the creation of management guidelines and admission requirements agreements. The decision whether or not to admit a cancer patient to the ICU is complicated and both the possible advantage and the risk of therapy being ineffective should be taken into account. Admission to the ICU of an oncology patient should be based on three principles:

• The rationale for admission needs to be reversible

• The patient has demonstrated an adequate quality of life and a prognosis of oncological illness and its treatment options support the use of extreme interventions.

• The patient or members of his or her families do not deny entry.

The prognosis of cancer patients in the ICU, as well as those with nononcological disorders, depends on their performance status, the severity of acute disease and the number of organ systems that malfunction. Oncological diagnosis, tumor cycle, neutropenia, aplasia or the presence of metastases has little or no relation to the short-term prognosis of an ICU cancer patient.

In general, cancer patients have a worse prognosis than non-cancer patients in ICU, particularly those with haematological malignancies. This is presumably due to being an immunocompromised patient and not developing cancer of its own. If we could assess the immunosuppression condition of critical patients in normal clinical practice, we would find a strong link with the condition and the prognosis. Over the next five years, improved awareness of the immune response in vital cancer patients, the potential to collect real-time evidence and the prospect of therapeutically modulating this response would represent an unprecedented step forward in enhancing survival.

Common prognosis ratings have very little utility in cancer patients and only ratings that measure organic function,Sequential Organ Loss Assessment (SOFA), Logistic Organ Dysfunction Score (LODS), better estimate mortality and are helpful in decision making. The short-term prognosis is mainly related to the number of defective organs (especially if more than 3), the need for intrusive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and the need for renal replacement therapy.

Rate and precision

Cancer patients have different degrees of immunosuppression, making them more likely to have conditions, not just contagious ones, during their disease, and to respond adversely to these complications. Also small organ dysfunctions have been associated with an increase in mortality, making early ICU entry a better predictive determinant. It is highly important when an oncologist is admitted to an ICU with sepsis or acute respiratory failure. The risk / benefit of preventive admission to ICU should be considered in high-risk patients.

The pace at which effective care is placed in motion will have a direct effect on the prognosis. The implementation of extra-ICU rapid response teams, extra-ICU patient evaluation teams or specialized initiatives for some pathologies (sepsis code) has contributed to improvement in this area.In a significant percentage of vital cancer cases, we have no reliable diagnosis and these cases have a poorer prognosis.

Non-invasive or minimally invasive diagnostic methods such as computed tomography ( CT), lung and cardiac ultrasound, thermodilution and/or pulse wave tracking and early examination of bronchoscopy samples (bronchoalveolar lavage and tracheal suction) should be the foundation of early diagnosis. There are also complex oncology patients in the category of acute time-dependent pathologies who have been shown to improve prognosis with immediate intervention protocols: code myocardial infarction, code stroke or code sepsis. Why not code cancer if we need to be extremely reliable and fast in our diagnostic and therapeutic response to cancer patients?

Strengthening service measures in the ICU

This is particularly true for respiratory assistance, both non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) and high-flow nasal cannula oxygen (HFNC). The requirement for tracheal intubation and IMV was found to be the key risk factor for short-term mortality in onco-haematological patients admitted to ICU. Given the increase in longevity due to the use of protective artificial ventilation, based on various clinical trials), NIMV has been prescribed as an initial therapy for respiratory failure in these patients as it greatly decreases the need for tracheal intubation and IMV, prevents related complications and increases prognosis. It is important to remember that in patients who choose a non-invasive ventilation strategy and subsequently require tracheal intubation, both short-term and longterm mortality is significantly higher; therefore, invasive support should not be delayed if permitted.

Trial of the ICU

In the group of patients we've questions on the attitude to be taken, it might be advisable to hold out an ICU trial, that's to mention, admission to the ICU without therapeutic restrictions for a minimum of 72 hours, with frequent and periodic re-evaluations, with a view to not perpetuating unnecessary treatments and prolonging the suffering of patients and their families. The ICU trial is predicated on a study published by Lecuyer et al. (2007) which found no statistically significant variation at the time of admission to the ICU that differentiated between survivors and nonsurvivors.

However, none of the patients who required increased organ support measures survived after 72 hours. Thus, if, at that point, the patient experiences a failure of three or more organs or a worsening of the previous multi-organ failure, vital expectations are minimal and it might be advisable to need action to limit the therapeutic effort (Prieto del Portillo et al. 2014). During this way, not only can we avoid unnecessary treatment or suffering of patients and relatives, but we'll also participate within the prevention of conflict between ICU staff and burnout.

Admission to ICU does not necessarily involve taking all the necessary measures for as long as possible. We need to take into account a wide range of options. Patients may be admitted with the intention of providing unrestricted treatment for at least five days and reassessed on the basis of their evolution. It is possible to enter for haemodynamic or renal support and to limit IMV. We can even sign up to optimize comfort measures or reduce high-flow nasal goggles or IMV dyspnoea in patients with poor prognosis.Decisions must even be taken here in amultidisciplinary way (intensivists, oncologists and hematologists) and in agreement with the patient and also the members of the family.

All therapeutics alternatives might indeed be considered and individualized, counting those customarily considered restricting variables like ICU chemotherapy or extracorporeal layer oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with extreme headstrong respiratory failure. Another issue is how early oncologists or intervists ask support and help from ICU. Unfortunately, experience has shown that valuable time is lost, which is to the detriment of the patient, until he would transferred to the ICU. Unfortunately, this ascertainment goes beyond the scope of this text. We reserve that we'll analyze it plus its extension in another article.

Short Communication

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Management of cancer pain and opioid epidemic

Evangelia Michailidou


 The opioid crisis affects people with cancer who depend on opioids to help them relieve their pain. It can be caused by cancer, by its treatment or by a combination of factors. While some pain lasts for a relatively short period and recovers on its own, cancer or its treatment may also lead to long-lasting, chronic pain. Opioid medications are an important compo­nent of the treatment of many forms of unreliable cancer pain.

Types of medications or other approaches used to manage pain in cancer patients and survivors

Any prescription opioid drug can be used in people with can­cer. Non-opioid agents are often used, including drugs such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Motrin or Advil). Antiseizure drugs such as gabapentin (Neurontin or Gralise) or antidepressant drugs such as duloxetine (Cymbalta) can be used for nerve pain. Oncology services rely heavily on opi­oids, but we never rely exclusively on opioids. We always use many treatments that operate in a number of ways. This covers other pharmacological (drug) treatment and, as far as possi­ble, non-pharmacological treatments such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, orthotics, cognitive behavioral therapy, massage and other integrative therapy.

How the opioid crisis has impacted cancer patients, cancer sur­vivors and their family members

It has heightened fear — especially the fear of addiction — that some patients might be reluctant to take opioid medication for pain. Often it’s not a patient, it’s a family member who’s thinking about addiction. As a consequence, family members may withhold treatment for a loved one who is in pain, or may doubt the need for opioid medication even when that person is at the end of life. Another big consequence is the decrease in access to prescription pain medications. The latest findings from a report released by the American Cancer Society Cancer Action Network and the Patient Quality of Life Alliance indi­cate that one-third or more of cancer patients and survivors have trouble obtaining their prescription opioid medicines.

Short Communication

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Non-Drug Approaches for cancer patient

Evangelia Michail Michailidou*

Non pharmacological treatments are valuable adjuncts to the treatment modalities for patients with cancer pain. Variety can be used to minimize pain and concomitant mood disturbance and improve quality of life. Physicians may feel relatively uninformed about the approaches used and scientific support for cancer patients. This article discusses a variety of non-pharmacological and complementary and alternative approaches widely used in patients with cancer pain. It focuses on those with scientific support or encouraging preliminary evidence, with the intention of familiarizing physicians with therapies that may supplement routine oncological treatment.

Pain is a multi-faceted condition involving biological , psychological and social effects. The incidence of pain in cancer patients has been reported to be between 46% and 79% during cancer care and 65% for those with advanced disease. Etiological causes for cancer pain include disease progression, treatment strategies for stopping cancer (e.g. surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy), inactivity musculoskeletal pain, and cancer-related infections that cause neuropathic pain.

A mixture of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment approaches for cancer pain is the standard of care as set out in the latest recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO).

Model of Biopsychosocial

This model incorporates the biological , psychological and social aspects of treatment and has been extended to patients with cancer pain.10 There is also a metaphysical or existential component of pain in cancer patients , particularly those diagnosed with terminal illness. Pain- related quality of life has been categorized into three well-being variables according to biopsychosocial representation:

• Physical wellbeing;

• psychological well-being (i.e., cognition, affect, moral causes, coping, communication, and the sense of pain and cancer);

• interpersonal well-being (e.g. social support, working roles)

The prevalent model of pain, Gate Control Theory,postulates a spinal cord control mechanism in the dorsal horn that receives ascending and descending signals from the nervous system and balances their integration. In the end, the experience of pain is decided by the biological assessment of these inputs.

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Cognitive behavioral ( CBT) can be helpful for patients with cancer pain.19 These strategies usually include telling patients to perform one of the following alone or in combination:

• To monitor their pain

• Monitor thoughts and feelings during the prescribed duration of the day;

• Follow pain exacerbations.

Patients then explore with the psychiatrist the content of these feelings and their connection to subsequent emotions. Maladaptive coping, often attributed to impaired unconscious reasoning and belief, may be recognized and changed by psychological intervention. Catastrophizing is one of the most important maladaptative adaptive coping mechanisms for pain relief. This is a propensity to make pessimistic perceptual and emotional judgments about discomfort or situations (e.g., "This discomfort is terrible, and I can't bear it." Or, "This pain means I'm going to die soon"). Catastrophication is associated with depression, elevated pain severity, and life-related pain and anxiety interference. The expectations of pain control and high self-efficacy that cancer survivors may do anything to affect their pain are associated with d iminished pain in these survivors.

Adjuvant methods

Together with effective pharmacological and interventional modes of care, include non-pharmacological and complementary medicine approaches. A comprehensive review of all non-pharmacological and alternative treatment approaches used in the treatment of cancer pain is beyond the scope of this Report. The emphasis is therefore on non- pharmacological treatments and complementary medicine commonly used to treat patients with cancer pain.

The significance of gate control theory for the treatment of patients with cancer pain is that downward cortical inputs that influence pain perception include neurological and psychosocial variables such as pain, emotions, stress responses, and cognition. Interventions aimed at changing these variables may also alter the perception and understanding of pain.

Psychological interference

Attention of social problems such as emotional anxiety, coping, and cancer belief is an important component of pain management services. Cancer pain can be aggravated by psychological distress, particularly mood disturbance, depression, panic, and anxiety, as shown by the vast majority of studies. Panic of disease deterioration and painful death is normal, but the degree of psychological distress varies among patients.

Psychological conditions with which patients need care are normal in cancer but tend to be more prominent in certain patients that often experience clinically severe pain.Thus, early intervention with mental health providers who can identify and manage psychological disorders ( e.g. serious affective disorders, attachment disorders, and anxiety disorders) is essential.

Behavioral interference

This treatment requires an exploration of the behaviour that has been learned or conditioned to assess and prevent suffering and to treat people with suffering or psychological distress. Psychophysiological techniques such as biofeedback and calming have been classified as behavioural. Other such techniques include modeling suitable actions, performing tasks in a "ranked" or structured way that encourages achievement and affirmation, practicing tasks ( e.g. sometimes to minimize fear) and controlling praise or incentives offered to significant others. Other strategies involve modeling acceptable behavior, executing tasks in a "ranked" or organized fashion that promotes accomplishment and affirmation, practicing tasks ( e.g. often mitigating fear) and managing appreciation or rewards given to significant others. The hybrid technique involves mediation, hypnosis, music therapy, and systemic desensitization. The last approach incorporates stimulation with sensitivity to conditions that induce fear; it can contribute to fear regulation.

Hypnosis is a particularly intense state of concentration that can be used to change unpleasant sensations. It has been found to be highly effective in the management of pain after invasive operations or surgery.

Physical Modality

Unique non-pharmacological physical modalities are also used to increase pain management plans. For example, rehabilitative therapy, such as optimizing range of motion, stamina, agility and neuromuscular function, can minimize instability and disuse-related pain. Another common physical therapy option, transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS), provides mild electrical stimulation to painful regions. The use of heat or cold or a mixture of both is another widely prescribed physical modality. The first technique is most commonly used to ease postoperative pain and pain from cancerrelated inflammatory processes. Caution must be taken while using heat in patients with insensate tissue, arterial insufficiency, metastatic cancers, diathesis bleeding, or cognitive deficits; such conditions can preclude a patient from hearing alerts of too much heat.

Finally, therapeutic movement and massage should be used to enhance the range of motion and relieve muscle pain. Physical therapy trained in the treatment of chronic or cancer pain also have the expertise to motivate certain patients to exercise, particularly though they observe limited improvement.

Psychosocial interference

Cancer suffering also impacts the psychological well-being of individuals. Keefe et al identify many broad types of treatments intended to treat patients with cancer pain, including cancer education, hypnosis and imaging, and instruction in coping skills. Educational engagement is based on helping people to understand the assessment of discomfort and address obstacles to pain management.

A National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Declaration on cancer symptom treatment details barriers to pain control. Casts, role playing, counseling, workshops and didactic sessions have been examined. While some of these approaches have positive outcomes, others do not; further research is required to determine the effectiveness of educational approaches.While some of these interventions have promising results, others do not; more analysis is needed to assess the feasibility of instructional approaches to critical potential directions in the study of biopsychosocial aspects of cancer pain. The reference to a psychologist is more an anomaly than the rule for patients with disease-related pain.

At times, access to facilities is still challenging. Subsequently, Keefe et al suggest that future investigate be coordinated toward down to earth procedures for integration, counting including medical caretakers in cognitive-behavioral preparing that can be fulfilled amid therapeutic arrangements, andusing phone or Web frameworks to convey self- management preparing.These techniques have been used in back pain and osteoarthritis trials with good results.

Therapeutic massage

Therapeutic massage goes back thousands of years to ancient civilizations of China , Japan and India. It is characterized as the systematic manual or mechanical manipulation of the body's soft tissues by movements such as rubbing, kneading, pushing, rolling or clapping, or a combination of movements for therapeutic purposes, including pain relief, muscle relaxation and circulation promotion.

Massage increases the pleasure and reduces levels of cortisol and anxiety. Psychosocial problems for survivors include discomfort, exhaustion, cognitive changes, body appearance, sexual functioning, infertility, financial challenges, and anxiety to the caregiver. Individuals can also experience medical and neurological disorders that include signs of traumatic stress, depression , anxiety, and recurrence.

The need for greater attention and randomized psychosocial treatments for cancer survivors' problems has recently been demonstrated. No epidemiological data exists for chronic pain in cancer patients, while post-treatment pain syndromes are well established. Surgery, amputation, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy are also possible causes of nerve damage arising from chronic pain. Slow improvement of cancer will also lead to persistent suffering. Recognizing and treating those with chronic pain in the same multidisciplinary way as those used during primary cancer care and those with nonmalignant pain was essential to improving the quality of life of cancer survivors.

Complementary medications

Complementary medicine (CAM) treatment modality has risen since 1993, when Eisenberg et al disclosed in a first nationwide survey that one in three respondents had used an unorthodox or CAM treatment modality in the previous year. However, studies have shown that patients frequently do not disclose their use of CAM to their doctors, often because of assumptions that their doctors are not responsive to CAM care. High- quality empiric results on CAM methods are emerging from expanded study due to the establishment of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) by the National Institutes of Health; however, comprehensive research on a wide variety of approaches is not yet available.

Several alternative therapy approaches have some convincing scientific research or positive preliminary data: traditional Chinese medicine, mind-body medicine, and therapeutic massage. Several alternative therapy approaches have some convincing scientific research or positive preliminary data: traditional Chinese medicine, mind-body medicine, and therapeutic massage.

Chinese Traditional Medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine dates back more than 4000 years and considers wellbeing as an equilibrium between the person and the environment. According to traditional Chinese medicine, qi or ch'I is a life energy force that flows in characteristic patterns (meridian) corresponding to five elements (earth, wood , metal, water , and fire). Physical and psychological disease is conceived as an inappropriate flow or blockage of qi around a meridian. The goal of traditional Chinese medicine is therefore to maintain an equilibrium in opposite meridian poles, referred to as yin and yang. Three elements of traditional Chinese medicine are acupuncture, qigong and neuro-emotional technique (NET).


Acupuncture, acupuncture, and electroacupuncture are types of conventional Chinese medicine in which the physical signs of meridians (e.g. joint pain) are measured and qi is encouraged or rebalanced. Pressure on meridian points can be exerted by inserting small gage needles (e.g. acupuncture) or a mixture of needles and low-frequency electrical current (electroacupuncture) or by manual finger pressure (acupuncture).

Physicians educated in Western medicine and acupuncture are most likely to follow a pragmatic approach to activate target points, tender points or a combination of segmental points suitable to a distressed location, while these referral patterns also mimic conventional meridian lines. Some research suggests that the benefits of acupuncture are related to the release of multiple endogenous compounds.

Acupuncture has been shown to better relieve a wide spectrum of pain disorders. Evidence is especially good for the use of this procedure in acute pain with little support for the management of post-process pain in cancer patients.

In addition to alleviating cancer pain, acupuncture has been used to treat patients with radiation-induced xerostomia, cancer-related complications such as shortness of breath due to primary or secondary malignancy, lower extremity edema secondary to intrapelvic lymph node dissection due to malignant gynecological tumors, and women with menopausal symptoms due to tamoxifen.

Side effects of acupuncture, acupuncture, and electroacupuncture are usually restricted to mild bruising or pain at the point of touch. Acupuncture is contraindicated in the immediate region of the unstable spine, in people with serious clotting problems or neutropenia, and in limbs with lymphedema. In comparison, semi-permanent needles, which have been taped for days at a time, are contraindicated in patients with valve heart disease.


Qigong is an ancient method to harness energies by gradual body movements and meditation, with or without visualization and breathing exercises. Like acupuncture and other traditional Chinese therapies, the aim of qigong is to open blocked energy pathways and promote qi.

While often taught in isolation for healing and health reasons, qigong is part of a cultivation method or lifestyle framework in Buddhism and Taoism directed at spiritual liberation and longevity.

Neuroemotional Technique

Neuroemotional Technique (NET) is an intervention focused on conventional Chinese medicine and involves measuring and physically holding corresponding meridian pulse points, thus promoting cognitive andemotional processing and resolution of previous stressful or anxietyproducing events. A preliminary NET analysis of female cancer survivors with associated traumatic stress symptoms compared with a postintervention exposure to a cancer-related case. Decreases in physiological reactivity and subjective scores of event-related pain were observed in addition to reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to the event.

Mind-body therapies

The word mind-body therapies is rather vague and refers to a collection of therapeutic modalities that include the awareness of the two-way influence of both systems. Any of these modalities are commonly classified as more traditional forms of care, such as gradual muscle relaxation. Hypnosis and meditation services are commonly considered to be CAM techniques and are reviewed here.

1. Hypnosis is a dynamic mechanism of attentive, receptive focus marked by a changed sensorium, altered psychological condition, and limited motor function. NIH Technology Appraisal Panel found good support for the use of hypnosis in reducing pain, even cancer-related pain. Pressure relief is believed to occur by cognitive distraction, muscle relaxation, and modification of vision. Hypnosis has been used to successfully alleviate chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting. This use of hypnosis focuses on the suppression of discomfort and physical reactions associated with hospital-associated reactions.

2. Meditation and Mindfulness – Based Stress Reduction — Meditation is a technique adapted from more systematic conventional Eastern programs. Yoga, for example, is an ancient Eastern Indian method that prescribes a way of life that requires healthy diet, actions, physical exercise, and sleep hygiene. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is one such technique that has demonstrated clinical benefits to people with a wide variety of medical problems, including cancer. This process promotes moment-to - moment consciousness through routine meditative practice. Participants learn to respond to their perception, including negative emotional feelings and non-judgmental states, embrace and relax.

MBSR has been shown to enhance patients' ability to deal with prostate cancer and to alleviate depression and mood problems in a population of patients with mixed forms of cancer. Shifts in immune system markers (reduction in T1 pro-inflammatory lymphocyte to T2 anti-inflammatory lymphocyte ratio) have also been reported in patients with breast cancer and prostate cancer following an 8-week MBSR program.

3.Mindfulness-based art therapy (MBAT) is a recently designed curriculum for cancer patients that incorporates MBSR into a supportive- expressive group model. A randomized clinical trial of MBAT showed substantial decreases in psychiatric pain and improvement in the quality of life of women living with mixed cancer relative to those on the waiting list.

4. MBAT differs from MBSR in that it is primarily tailored for cancer patients, offers a non-verbal creative-expressive aspect by art therapy, and is tailored for small groups.

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Citations: 440

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