Asthma is the most common paediatric chronic disease. Hindrance in asthma diagnosis is widespread resulting in unsatisfactory management in asthma. About 80% of paediatric asthma patients have symptom onset before age six, most of them before age three. However, only about 1/3 of children with at least one episode of asthmatic symptoms by age three will have asthma at age six and over, Asthma is under-diagnosed in 18-75% of asthmatic children. This city is categorized unhealthy for human beings. Deterioration in urban air quality in most megacities is quite profound and Kolkata Metropolitan City is no exception to this. An assessment of Kolkata air quality is done where the listed pollutants’ (RPM, SPM, NO2 and SO2) annual average concentration are classified into four different categories; namely critical, high, moderate, and low pollution. There are 17 monitoring stations in Kolkata and out of which five fall under the critical category, and the remaining 12 locations fall under the high category of NO2 concentration, regarding RPM, four stations are critical, and 13 stations record data which are under the high pollution category. Model questionnaires were run through 10% of the households to assess socio-economic conditions, critical environmental conditions, nature and types of health burdens as well as gauge the attitude in the direction of health care facilities were done. A comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge about the seasonal and spatial variation of asthma and studying air quality of the area. Mapping through GIS. It is desirable to construct an accurate model (Asthma Prediction Index) to predict whether a child will develop asthma in the future due to the deteriorating air pollution in the city.
The Ralah field is one of the concession 6 fields operated by sirte oil company. It is located in the southern part of the Sirte Basin (Libya), approximately 200 km south of the Mediterranean Sea. The upper cretaceous waha formation is the main producer in the Ralah Field. This reservoir is very complex and more heterogeneous. The Ralah Field was discovered in June 1964 with the drilling of DD1-6 well through the Waha formation and proved to be the most prolific reservoir in the area. The 2D seismic surveys were performed. In 2004 a 3D seismic survey of 340 km² was completed to evaluate remaining potential. The seismic interpretation has acquired new drillable well locations. From the history of the field, it is obvious that there have been successes and failures in the Waha reservoir in the Ralah Field. This can be attributed to facies variation, thickness and reservoir properties. Seismic and well data of nineteen wells have been used in this project. Waha reservoir was evaluated, analyzed and interpreted in order to gain a better understanding of the reservoir distribution over the study area. Seismic interpretation and coherence attribute analysis were performed for the fault trend identification; and using petrel software, Property models were constructed in terms of clay volume, porosity, permeability and hydrocarbon saturation. The aim of studying these properties is to decrease the risk and uncertainty of drilling infill wells in the field.
Indoor air quality is gaining more attention by researchers and other stake holders. Formaldehyde is a major indoor air-pollutant which has attracted public attention worldwide due to its negative impact on health and can be found in household and construction products. The data set was comprised of particulate matters (1.0, 2.5 and 10), Total Volatile Organic Compound (TVOC), Relative Humidity, Daily Ambient Temperature and Formaldehyde. Sample data for Indoor Air Quality were gathered from an active sampler. The data collection was carried out in eighteen days consecutively in one room located on the ground floor of the hostel building. The Artificial neural network have proven to be an effective tool in the analysis of non-linear data by establishing a relationship between experimental and predicted data through historical data records. The results of MSE of the tested network show that the best validation performance was achieved at 0.00011101 at epoch 1 when a neural network architecture comprising 16 hidden neurons were used which was characterized by its regression value of 0.98847 indicating that the two variables between input data and target have positive relation. It is possible for the model to be improved upon by adding more indoor environmental parameters and prolonging duration of data collection to reflect seasonal variations.
climate change effects on water resources, adaptation on climate change, treated wastewater recycling, arid and semi-arid regions, Jordan.
Being a problem threatening the planet and its ecosystems, the climate change has been considered for a long time as a disturbing topic impacting water resources in Jordan. Jordan is expected for instance to be highly vulnerable to climate change consequences given its unbalanced distribution between water resources availability and existing demands. Thus, action on adaptation to climate impacts is urgently needed to cope with the negative consequences of climate change. Adaptation to global change must include prudent management of treated wastewater as a renewable resource, especially in regions lacking groundwater or where groundwater is already over exploited.
This paper highlights the expected negative effects of climate change on the already scarce water sources and to motivate researchers and decision makers to take precautionary measures and find alternatives to keep the level of water supplies at the limits required for different consumption sectors in terms of quantity and quality. The paper will focus on assessing the potential for wastewater recycling as an adaptation measure to cope with water scarcity in Jordan and to consider wastewater as integral part of the national water budget to solve environmental problems. The paper also identified a research topic designed to help the nation progress in making the most appropriate use of the resource, namely for agricultural irrigation. Wastewater is a promising alternative to fill the shortage in water resources, especially due to climate changes, and to preserve the valuable fresh water to give priority to securing drinking water for the population from these resources and at the same time raise the efficiency of the use of available resources.
Jordan has more than 36 wastewater treatment plants distributed throughout the country and producing about 386,000 CM/day of reclaimed water. According to the reports of water quality control programs, more than 85 percent of this water is of a quality that is completely identical to the quality suitable for irrigation of field crops and forest trees according to the requirements of Jordanian Standard No. 893/2006.
Joachim Starup Hansen
Climate change has been described as the biggest global health threat of the 21st century. As a result, governments around the world are committing to legislative change in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs). The healthcare sector makes a significant contribution to GHGEs and in line with national legislation in the UK, the NHS has recently committed to achieving net zero emissions by 2050. The management of asthma and COPD largely depends on the prescribing of medications that are delivered through inhalers. In the UK, the use of pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs), which rely on hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) propellants accounts for 3.5% of the NHS’s total carbon footprint. In contrast, dry powder inhalers (DPIs) have a much lower carbon footprint due to the absence of a HFC propellant. Here we review evidence of the impact of inhaler choices across four domains: environmental impact, clinical effectiveness, cost effectiveness and patient preferences. We find that as well as a lower global warming potential, DPIs have additional benefits over pMDIs in other domains and should be considered first line where clinically appropriate.
Meryem Kadri and Ammar Bouchair
In hot regions, excessive heat and high temperature are the major problems of thermal discomfort, especially in summer. Several traditional practices and passive cooling methods have been made to improve thermal comfort inside dwellings. Including; compactness, local materials, passive cooling systems: Wind towers, patios, Chebek, vegetation ... etc. The M’Zab valley in southern Algeria is one of the traditional cities that have applied these practices par excellence. Among these practices, the use of the roof terrace. During the day, the thick roof terrace acts as an insulator to reduce the transfer of heat to the interior. During the night, the residents open the Chebek to refresh the interior spaces through the air circuit through the patio. In addition, the roof terrace can be used so that the inhabitants can sleep there. So, this work is interested in the study of roofs built in the ksour of the M’Zab valley, its forms, materials, etc. Then, we will do an in situ measurement work using the measuring instruments to qualify the indoor thermal environments through the measurements of ambient air temperatures and temperatures of roof surfaces in summer. The object of work is to lift the veil on the role of roofs in Mozabite constructions to control temperature variations to achieve pleasant thermal comfort.
The aimed of this research is to assess Normalized Difference Vegetation Index( NDVI )emissivity per pixel using Landsat TM and ETM+ satellite data for 2001,2006 and 2012 Landsat satellite data. Continuous monitoring of this parameter is likely to yield information about the suspected climate change. NDVI, vegetation condition index (VCI), and temperature vegetation index (TVX) have been widely used for determining temporal emission on Land surface Temperature (LST) changes and monitoring drought .This was estimated as narrow band emissivity at the satellite sensor in order to have the minimal error in the surface temperature evaluation. Corresponding correlations were obtained between high surface temperature and negative NDVI valuesNDVI,. refers to the difference ratio between land surface reflectance in the Near-infra red and Visible (Red) band. The study further showed that the built up area has expanded by 0.422%of the total land area of Minna in 2001 to 48.17in 2012, vegetation covers reduced from 46.30%to 22.15.The implication of this unprecedented growth is the resulting environmental and ecological problems associated with unplanned urban growth and development such as flooding, urban heat island, etc. Nevertheless greening and due adherence to development control were suggested as measures to control the impending environmental crisis