Dong Jin Jeon, Seo Jin Ki, Kyung Hwa Cho and Joon Ha Kim
While best management practices (BMP) are recommended to attain non-point source loads in receiving water bodies, it is still unclear whether their efficiency will be maintained under future climate change. In a present study, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a semi-distributed watershed model, was used to determine the best BMP options achieving the necessary pollution reductions as well as to assess changes in the pollution loads in agricultural water shed between the current and future weather conditions. Three weather scenarios for the decade of 2040 (2040–2049), which were developed from the Representative Concentration Pathways 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report, were projected into the Youngman River watershed, Korea. The scenario covering both calibration and validation periods (2000-2009) was used as a reference condition. Specifically, genetic algorithm was applied for obtaining the global solutions for nonlinear problems (i.e., cost vs. efficiency). Results showed that sediment and phosphorus loads were significantly different among various weather scenarios. This implied that the current BMP options which were determined based on the reference scenario needed to be rearranged for the future conditions. While parallel terraces which decreased phosphorus removal efficiency were identified as the worst option under the future weather scenarios, no tillage approach showed the best performance, as compared to that of the current condition, for instance. We expect that the proposed methodology will provide optimal management strategies to achieve the water quality targets in complex watersheds, specifically those with mixed land uses. Climate change is expected to intensify the existing risks, particularly in regions where water scarcity is already a concern, as well as create new opportunities in some areas. Efforts to develop adaptation strategies for agricultural water management can benefit from understanding the risks and adaptation strategies proposed to date. This understanding may assist in developing priorities for the adaptation of water resources for irrigation. Here we characterize the main risks across European regions and evaluate adaptation strategies by reviewing over 168 highly relevant publications that appeared in the last 15 years. Based on this extensive database we characterize the effort and benefit of a number of agronomic and policy measures, aiming to develop concrete adaptation plans and responding to concrete regional challenges. The adaptation choices consider current technological perspectives and do not project future technological change; we are certain that technological change will shape some choices for adaptation in the coming decades. The greatest scope for action is in improving adaptive capacity and responding to changes in water demands, however the implementation requires revamping current water policy, adequate training to farmers and viable financial instruments. These results aim to assist stakeholders as they take up the adaptation challenge and develop measures to reduce the vulnerability of the sector to climate change.
Fabio Teodoro de Souz
The sustainability of large cities is controlled by consumption, disposal, and environmental capacity. The weather patterns have been affected by the quick growing of the cities. These imbalances imply climate changes and negative consequences to the public health. In addition, due to the explosive growth in carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel usage, researchers emphasize the importance in improving the quantitative control of the global carbon cycle as a central element to understand the patterns and projections of climate change. It is also discussed the importance in attributing observed CO2 variations to human or natural cause. This research focuses on better understanding the relationships between air pollution and respiratory diseases. The methodology consists in applying data mining techniques on hospitalization due to respiratory diseases organized with atmospheric and urban variables. The knowledge acquired from this study - which is still in the early phase of data collection - could be useful for urban management and public health policies. Some qualitative associations between air pollutants in Curitiba and respiratory morbidity of childhood population have been discussed. Curitiba has a metropolitan area with population around 3 million. Some scientists highlighted the necessity of spreading methodological experiences from medium-size cities with relatively stable emissions to the more complex and representative environments of megacities (metropolitan areas with populations greater than 10 million). Moreover, this research should verify if the use of data mining techniques may potentially contribute to explain air pollution associated to the augment of the anthropogenic CO2 signal in urban environments of megacities. In the last two decades, urbanization has intensified, and in Brazil, about 90% of the population now lives in urban centers. Atmospheric patterns have changed owing to the high growth rate of cities, with negative consequences for public health. This research aims to elucidate the spatial patterns of air pollution and respiratory diseases. A data-based model to aid local urban management to improve public health policies concerning air pollution is described. An example of data preparation and multivariate analysis with inventories from different cities in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba was studied. A predictive model with outstanding accuracy in prediction of outbreaks was developed. Preliminary results describe relevant relations among morbidity scales, air pollution levels, and atmospheric seasonal patterns. The knowledge gathered here contributes to the debate on social issues and public policies. Moreover, the results of this smaller scale study can be extended to megacities. Background: Data measuring airborne pollutants, public health and environmental factors are increasingly being stored and merged. These big datasets offer great potential, but also challenge traditional epidemiological methods. This has motivated the exploration of alternative methods to make predictions, find patterns and extract information. To this end, data mining and machine learning algorithms are increasingly being applied to air pollution epidemiology. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review on the application of data mining and machine learning methods in air pollution epidemiology. We carried out our search process in PubMed, the MEDLINE database and Google Scholar. Research articles applying data mining and machine learning methods to air pollution epidemiology were queried and reviewed. Results: Our search queries resulted in 400 research articles.
Zuxin Xu, Hailong Yin, Yi Lu and Huaizheng Li
As compared to the overflow pollution of a combined sewer system, little attention has been paid to the overflow pollution of separate storm drains, especially a storm drainage system with inappropriate sewage entry. With one separate storm drainage system in the Shanghai downtown area as the study site (374 ha), the monitoring activities for inappropriate dry-weather sewage outflow and storm pumping discharge on dry-weather and wet-weather days were conducted, according to which the overflow pollution characteristics of storm drains with inappropriate sewage entry were probed. The following findings were obtained. (1) Whether for storm pumping discharge on dry-weather days or on wet-weather days, the induced overflow concentrations were high, exhibiting 8.2–15.5 times the receiving water use objective on dry-weather days and 7.3–10.4 times the level on wet-weather days for the pollutants considered, including suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). (2) Till the end of the storm pumping discharge, the overflow concentrations of SS, COD, BOD5 and TP could still be higher than the concentration of inappropriate dry weather sewage outflow, especially for the pumping discharge under dry-weather and medium rain scenarios. This means that the first flush effect was insignificant, and the flush effect occurs consistently throughout the pumping discharge event. (3) Under the wet-weather pumping discharge, the event-mean concentrations of SS, COD and BOD5 of separate storm drains were close to those of combined sewers in the old downtown areas of Shanghai, and the event-mean concentrations of NH3-N from the separate storm drains were significantly higher. Such phenomena are related to serious sewage connections in the storm drains, resulting in dry weather sediment deposition within the storm pipes and the following sediment flush when the storm pumps start, and to a low in-line storm water storage capacity. Therefore, the measures to abate the overflow pollution of the storm drainage system include correcting the inappropriate sewage entries into the storm drains, strengthening the maintenance of the pipe network (e.g., dredging the in-pipe sediments regularly) and employing on-line treatment-type units like continuous water detention tank-enhanced sedimentation tanks and vortex separators. To probe the overflow pollution of separate storm drains with inappropriate sewage entries, in terms of the relationship between sewage entries and the corresponding dry-weather and wet-weather overflow, the monitoring activities were conducted in a storm drainage system in the Shanghai downtown area (374 ha). In this study site, samples from inappropriately entered dry-weather sewage and the overflow due to storm pumps operation on dry-weather and wet-weather days were collected and then monitored for six water quality constituents. It was found that overflow concentrations of dry-weather period could be higher than those of wet-weather period; under wet-weather period, the overflow concentrations of storm drains were close to or even higher than that of combined sewers. Relatively strong first flush mostly occurred under heavy rain that satisfied critical rainfall amount, maximum rainfall intensity, and maximum pumping discharge, while almost no first flush effect or only weak first flush effect was found for the other rainfall events. Such phenomenon was attributed to lower in-line pipe storage as compared to that of the combined sewers, and serious sediment accumulation within the storm pipes due to sewage entry. For this kind of system, treating a continuous overflow rate is a better strategy than treating the maximum amount of early part of the overflow. Correcting the key inappropriate sewage entries into storm drains should also be .
Obesity has become a major epidemic in the United States and other developed countries. Usually defined by a Body mass Index (BMI) of 30 or greater, obesity has been shown to pose major health risks including cardiovascular disease and cancer. While on the basest level, obesity results from taking in more calories than are expected over a long period of time, studies also show that the problem is much more complex than that. Genetics, lifestyle choices, chronic disease, and environment all play key roles in the propensity of obesity. Medical research has continually supported that exposure to fine particulate matter in the air increases the risk of several respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The correlation between air pollution and these disorders is particularly noticeable in children, low income communities, and areas that are close to sources of air pollution. Recently, particulates have been linked to other inflammatory processes, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes and its accompanying epidemic of obesity are two of the most persistent and expensive health problems in modern developed countries. This talk outlines the relationship between different types of air pollution and their possible link to the obesity epidemic in the Western world. Chinese air pollution is obviously increasing, and the government makes efforts to strengthen air pollution treatment. Although adverse health effects gradually emerge, research determining individual vulnerability is limited. This study estimated the relationship between air pollution and obesity. Individual information of 13,414 respondents from 125 cities is used in the analysis. This study employs ordinary least squares (OLS) and multinomial legit model (m-legit) to estimate the impact of air pollution on obesity. We choose different air pollution and Body Mass Index (BMI) indicators for estimation. Empirical results show Air Quality Index (AQI) is significantly positively associated with the BMI score. As AQI adds one unit, the BMI score increases 0.031 (SE = 0.002; p < 0.001). The influence coefficients of particle size smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), particle size smaller than 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and sulphur dioxide (SO2) to the BMI score are 0.034 (SE = 0.002; p < 0.001), 0.023 (SE = 0.001; p < 0.001), 0.52 (SE = 0.095; p < 0.001), 0.045 (SE = 0.004; p < 0.001), 0.021 (SE = 0.002; p < 0.001), pollution has an adverse effect on body weight. CO is the most influential pollutant, and female, middle-aged, and low-education populations are more severely affected. The results confirm that the adverse health effects of air pollution should be considered when making the air pollution policies. Findings also provide justification for health interventions, especially for people with obesity.
Sadegh Partani, Mohammad Reza Majdzadeh Tabatabai, Hossein Ganjidoust, Ahmad Khodadadi Darban and Hamidreza Azari
River quality monitoring in developing arid/semi-arid countries would be necessary, much expensive and time consumer especially on the verge of upcoming world drought and water scarcity. Simine-roud River is one of the main rivers which will be discharged to Uremia Lake in the north-west of the Iran. This study has investigated the water quality of Simine-roud River focusing on the physicochemical and hydro morphological parameters and land use characteristics relations to find out some easy going water quality index. The aim of this study is to develop an immediate factors (IF) which effects on the water quality. The mentioned IF should be accessible and effortless to reduce the first river quality out-looks obviously. Field studies were carried out in 4 seasons, 15 stations for 12 variations. Multivariate statistical and discriminated cluster analysis was employed to finding the effective factors. Results discovered that hydraulic parameter and some physical variations with land characteristics can give the monitoring systems a liable overview on the river quality. Hydraulic regime (Reynolds/Froude) and bed load size shall be representative of water energy, velocity, DO according to river morphology. Other IF parameters and variation expected to generate an Immediate Preliminary River Quality outlook without much time, costs, tests etc. The aim of the study was to analyse the results of surface water quality tests carried out in the Bystrzyca river basin. The study was conducted over four years in four seasons. The following chemo metric techniques were used for the purposes of statistical analyses: the principal component analysis with factor analysis (PCA/FA), the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and the discriminant analysis (DA). The analyses allowed for determining the temporal variability in water quality between the seasons. The best water quality was recorded in summer and the worst in autumn. The analyses did not provide a clear assessment of the spatial variability of water quality in the river basin. Pollution from wastewater treatment plants and soil tillage had a similar effect on water quality. The tested samples were characterized by very high electrolytic conductivity, suspended solids and P-
PO4 concentrations and the water quality did not meet the standards of good ecological status. Channel changes in meandering rivers naturally exhibit complex behavior, and
understanding the river dynamics can be challenging in environments also subject to cumulative human impacts. Plan form changes were analysed on four reaches of the lower course of the Pixie River, Brazil, at decadal scales over the period 1962–2008 from aerial photographs and satellite imagery, complemented by a historical map from 1907. Analysis of the spatial and temporal patterns of channel change mechanisms and morphometric of bends and of the sinuosity and morph dynamic variations of the reaches demonstrates major changes in platform characteristics. Sinuosity in all reaches decreased from ~ 2.6 to ~ 1.7, average wavelength of bends has increased from ~ 200 to ~ 500 m, and the platform has become much simpler. Changes have been progressive from downstream to upstream, with higher intensities of processes, particularly cut-offs first in downstream reaches then more recently in upstream reaches. It is suggested that channel changes represent a morphological adjustment to human interventions, such as reservoir construction and land use. However, evidence of the autogenic behaviour of meanders is highlighted in which the existence of compound meanders reveals control over the spatial variation in the reaches. The results suggest that geomorphic thresholds associated with the compound meander formation and the bend evolution should be considered, even in impacted meandering rivers, because they exert primary controls on the spatial-temporal adjustment of channels.