Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on biodiversity and conservation outcomes |

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Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on biodiversity and conservation outcomes

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Evaluation of sonication process in vegetable tannery wastewater treatment

Alireza Mohammadi Aghdam

In April 2020, the International Water Association (IWA) established a Task Force to serve as a leadership team within IWA, with the mission of keeping abreast of and communicating emerging science, technology, and applications for understanding the impact and ability to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, with a focus on water professionals and industries. Italy's tanning sector makes a substantial contribution to the European economy. At the same time, it's common knowledge that this industry produces a lot of toxic effluent. Organic matter (COD) levels in vegetable tannery wastewater are high, with a high percentage of resistant organic compounds. Due to the intricacy of the chemical composition, vegetable tannery effluent has a number of problems. To avoid serious environmental consequences, contaminants must be transported. Activated sludge methods, on the other hand, are important technology in wastewater treatment. Massive amounts of waste activated sludge (WAS) or other bio-solids are produced by these biological processes. To minimise the sludge charge, mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical WAS conditioning procedures have been proposed. Among them are WAS therapies, with sonication as a pretreatment being one of the most creative. The effect of highfrequency sonication on decreasing organic matter, with or without the use of H2O2 and aeration, is the main focus. The parameters that influence the removal of organic matter (COD) and soluble COD (SCOD), as well as total nitrogen (TN) and total organic carbon (TOC), were studied and compared. The presence of H2O2 is then studied to see how it impacts the process' performance, as well as how it affects the combined sonication and biological processes.

In other words, the research looks at the impact of Soon lysis on waste activated sludge solubilization and anaerobic biodegradability of vegetable tannery wastewater and primary sludge from a tannery wastewater treatment plant in Santa Croce (Tuscany, Italy). The findings of a pilot scale study carried out at the Tannery wastewater treatment plant (Cuoiodepur). The combination of a sonication pre-treatment with the use of H2O2 produced good results in terms of COD and SCOD reduction on vegetable tannery wastewater and primary sludge for recovery and reuse in the tannery treatment cycle during the test. The sonication pre-treatment was able to remove around 25% of COD and SCOD from wastewater, as well as more than 40% of COD reduction and 18% increase in SCOD in the primary sludge of vegetable tannery effluent. Furthermore, sonication with H2O2 had a 35 percent and 30 percent effect on total suspended solid (TSS) and volatile suspended solid (VSS), respectively. On the other hand, the primary sludge of vegetable tannery effluent exhibited a 27 percent reduction in total organic carbon (TOC). The goal of this review paper is to give readers a better understanding of what is known about COVID-19 and to provide risk mitigation advice based on what is currently known about viruses in wastewater. This research article looked at several scenarios for both the developed and developing worlds and offered risk management recommendations. The purpose of the review paper is to bring together information about the pandemic and other viruses. This review document, according to the IWA Task Team, will give the necessary direction for the worldwide response to the current pandemic.

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Production and potentials of Biomass residues and wastes for energy and materials recovery

Ashraf Abdelrahim

To prevent plastic leakage and pollution, plastics have been at the top of the political agenda in Europe and around the world. The COVID-19 pandemic, on the other hand, has significantly disturbed plastic reduction policies at the regional and national levels, as well as substantial changes in plastic waste management, all of which have the potential to have detrimental environmental and human health consequences. The rise in global population, combined with economic development, has resulted in fast urbanisation and industrialization, which has altered the population's consumption patterns, resulting in an increase in demand for energy and related services. Biomass leftovers and wastes have the potential to be significant sources of energy and materials. Forest, agricultural, and livestock residues, as well as energy crops, the organic component of municipal garbage, and other organic waste streams, can all be used to produce bioenergy. This article examines the potential energy production from biomass residues and wastes on a regional and worldwide scale, taking into account the amount of residues and wastes from main sources as well as pretreatment and conversion methods. Agricultural and forestry residues, animal residues, and municipal wastes are all examples of biomass energy sources. Statistical reports and a literature review were used to calculate the potential biomass resource quantity. In Italy country, residues from agricultural and forest, as well as urban wastes offer a substantial biomass potential. However, determining the national biomass availability is complicated not only by a lack of reliable official data, but also by a conceptual distinction: whether "available" refers to the total amount of biomass available in the territory (potential availability), or to the availability that is technically and economically viable.

This study gives an overview of plastic regulations and analyses how they were adjusted during the COVID-19 epidemic, as well as their potential environmental consequences. The sudden increase in plastic waste and composition as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the urgent need to strengthen plastic reduction policies (and put them into action as soon as possible), scale up innovation for sustainable and green plastics, and develop dynamic and responsive waste management systems. Policy recommendations and future research directions are discussed. Biography: Ashraf Abdelrahim is a doctoral student on Energy Science and Engineering program at University of Naples Parthenope. He majored in Mechanical Engineering at University of Khartoum, Sudan, and received MSc in Energy Engineering from the University of Khartoum in 2012. His research interests include energy management, simulation and modelling, energy consumption and planning and transition to sustainable energy systems, as well as energy efficient buildings and industry. He is involved in Parthenope's Laboratory of Thermo-fluid dynamics, Energy, and HVAC systems (LaTEC), an environment for experimental research in the above-mentioned areas. His doctoral study has been funded by National Research Council (CNR), the largest research council in Italy.

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Carbon money system-recycling of waste paper in response to climate change

Ji Whan Ahn

Thirty-five percent of the world's forests (about 4 billion trees) are utilised as raw materials for paper, and paper raw material production has expanded 400 percent in the last 40 years. When generating 1 tonne of paper, it has been stated that recycling waste paper can save 30,000 litres of water, 17-31 trees, 4,000 kWh of electricity, and 60 pounds of air pollutants. According to research published in 2010, recycling one tonne of waste paper saves 1,070 kg of CO2, 95 percent of air pollutants, and 28 to 70 percent of water and electricity, all of which contribute to climate change mitigation, pollution reduction, and energy use reduction. To deal with climate change, 17 European countries have joined the COST Action E48 project, which entails data collecting and analysis of waste. The appropriate policy foundation, waste recycling guide, and system required around 5 years to develop. Recycling 1 tonne of waste can save 937 kg of CO2, 3,224 kWh of energy, 42,465 litres of water, and 340 kg of garbage, according to the United States Environmental Paper Network (US EPN). Pilot program of the ???Carbon Money System??? to be installed in the Olympic Park with aims to stimulate paper raw materials businesses through recycling and incorporating ???low-carbon city??? model as part of the Carbon Mineralization Flagship. There are currently about 20.1 million confirmed cases worldwide, with 742 thousand deaths. The top ten countries depicted in Fig. 1 with reported cases include the USA (5,094,400 persons), Brazil (3,057,470 persons), India (2,268,675 persons), Russia (890,799 persons), South Africa (563,598 persons) etc. The COVID-19 pandemic has uncovered various flaws and limitations in the current socioeconomic, health, and environmental sectors across countries, regardless of income group (poor, middle, and higher income) (Owusu and Asumadu 2020).

Though the COVID-19 epidemic is said to have reduced air pollution and noise pollution, as well as increased biodiversity and tourist attractions, the effects of stay-at-home and preventive measures on waste management is concerning. Due to the unprecedented output of garbage from both families and health facilities, there appears to be a trash emergency due to the hoarding of gloves, gowns, masks, and other protective clothes and equipment. Failure to adequately handle trash created by health facilities and families may result in secondary transmission of COVID-19. Due to the exposure to contaminants, rampant dumping, open burning, and incineration could have an impact on air quality and health outcomes. As a result, there is a problem in managing atypical trash in a sustainable manner while lowering air pollution, minimising secondary virus transmission, and mitigating potential health risks utilising existing garbage facilities. Furthermore, without proper waste management systems and waste emergency strategies to combat the epidemic, there could be major ramifications for underdeveloped countries.

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Bio-inspired composites

Vincent Tan

The exoskeletons of many crustaceans are similar to fibre reinforced composites because they are made up of layers of aligned chitin filaments layered together. The helicoidal lay-up of crustacean laminates is a unique property. Each layer is rotated at a tiny angle from the one below it, similar to the steps of a spiral staircase — an uncommon structure that is rarely used in structural composites. To see if carbon fibre reinforced epoxy with helicoidal lay-ups offered any benefit, they were constructed and tested. Helicoidal laminates outperformed cross-ply and quasi-isotropic laminates in terms of peak load by up to 50% under transverse stresses. Further testing involving various composite material systems reveal and validate reasons for the enhanced performance. Ideas for helicoidal laminates that can repair after injury will be given based on these findings. The rising demand for lightweight materials with the best strength-toughness balance is driving research towards the development of new materials with outstanding performance. Composites are frequently the best choice for structural applications because they offer an excellent balance of mechanical qualities and low weight. Composite materials' low toughness, on the other hand, is frequently a drawback. Many researchers attempted to circumvent this constraint by replicating natural principles, resulting in a new class of tougher composites known as biomimetic composites. Natural hierarchical materials are an excellent source of design inspiration for emerging smart materials. Bone is a viable choice among these materials, with a good combination of mechanical qualities and a lightweight structure that can support a wide range of animal bodies. Bone, in particular, is attractive for research studies because to its amazing hardness.

We provide instructions for developing novel materials based on the bone structure. The goal is to apply important microstructural aspects of bone tissue in de novo composite materials to imitate the fundamental toughening mechanisms happening in bone microstructure. Various case studies on the realisation of new bone-inspired materials using various manufacturing techniques, such as composite lamination and additive manufacturing, are presented in this chapter. A thorough analysis of the novel materials reveals how the bone-like pattern influences the crack course and overall fracture behaviour of the composites, resulting in improved mechanical performance. Furthermore, it is feasible to observe some parallels between the failure modes and the bone tissue by observing the failure modes. Microscopic examinations revealed that the toughening mechanisms had been executed correctly in the new materials and had a good impact on the overall mechanical performance.

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Safeguarding the Plant Community for Global Development and Environmental Concerns.

Yamani Tiwari

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the newest episode in a string of environment-borne human tragedies, catastrophic in its magnitude, reach, and repercussions. Understandably, the scientific literature has centralized on the causes and consequences of the pandemic from an anthropocentric viewpoint. As immense as the human tragedy neighbouring the pandemic is, the glaring blind spot is the ecological impact of the pandemic and the pandemicinstigates lockdown. Agriculture is the study of the construction and function of plants and other procedure of plants. It is a division of biology pertaining to plant life, along with their processes and functions. It is experimental, laboratory-based field of science that requires knowledge of physics and chemistry. It is relevant to numeral of industries, medicine, agriculture, food production and textiles. Importance and scope: The scope of plant science has accelerated to include the study of over 550,000 kinds or species of living organisms. Historically botany includes all organisms that were not examined to be animals. Plant life can be studied from different perspectives, from the molecular, genetic and biochemical through cells, tissues, and plant organelles. Plants are the fundamental section of life on earth. It is believed that the evolution of plants has modified the global atmosphere of the earth. It involves breeding plants for different reasons such as increasing yield and quality, heat and drought resistance, resistance to phyto pathogens and amplifying the nutritional quality of crops. At the plant science conference will be assembly experienced from the universities so that new ideas or new trends or research will come with the discussion.

For example, during the lockdown, the Amazonian rainforest destruction increased by 55% in the first four months of 2020 compared with the same period last year in lockdown centuries-old coral reefs in the Caribbean are unalterable damaged as a result of the lack of treatment against fungal diseases, and invasive species such as rats are destroying native species and habitats on island nations such as New Zealand in the absence of eradication efforts. Market Report: With a total gross domestic product of US$4.1 trillion in 2015, Japan is the world's third largest economy. In FY 2015, the domestic market for agriculture was estimated to be worth 9.72 billion yen, according to a research firm. However, sales and operational support solutions are likely to accelerate beyond FY 2018. Inclusion, precision farming is expected to expand from around FY 2018, as the system realizes internetworking among agricultural machineries and systems will get popularized. Japanese consumers are renowned for placing enormous importance on consuming food in both safe and high quality. Japan is the trendsetter in many areas, it is the useful gateway to other markets within Asia. There is an increase in demand for natural ingredients as phytochemicals help in the prevention of delay aging products. Process, chronic diseases, improves health and increase life expectancy. The further raise in the manufacturing of phytochemicals is due to demand for nutritional.

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Citations: 519

Journal of Biodiversity & Endangered Species received 519 citations as per Google Scholar report

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