Cell metabolism

Molecular and Genetic Medicine

ISSN: 1747-0862

Open Access

Cell metabolism

Review Article

Pages: 1 - 11

Natural Substances and Botanicals as Modulators in Major Depressive Disease: Focus on BDNF - A Review

Erhan Yarar*

This review discusses multiple aspects of Major Depressive Disease (MDD) and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in terms of epigenetics, natural substances and translational medicine as treatment options for MDD. Diagnosis is still based upon psychiatrist’s education and experience and unfortunately there is still no test marker to diagnose patient’s mental health status. BDNF has a vital and complex role in diagnosing psychiatric conditions such as MDD. Conventional drugs and standard medical approachment to MDD come up short in increasing BDNF levels so the translational medicine might be a candidate to fortify the treatment and BDNF to be a reliable candidate for diagnosis and prognosis of MDD and other psychiatric conditions. It will be contextualized the exogenous components as capable as increasing the BDNF levels in MDD patients which is found usually low. Natural substance’s application as a tool of translational medicine will be screened as long as the limited data permits for the very reason that the translational medicine helps increase BDNF levels without causing side and adverse effects caused by standard medications. The need to revisit of natural compound’s neglected importance and their application in MDD will be articulated.

Research Article

Pages: 1 - 6

Usefulness and Applicability of Next Generation Sequencing in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

Manyanont S*, Winter K and Trikalinos NA

Background: Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are rare tumors that can arise anywhere in the body and treatment options are limited due to their rarity. Knowledge of their mutational status might allow for tumor agnostic treatments, suggest a familial component or aid in enrollment in clinical trials, especially in the metastatic setting.

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the clinical relevance of results from next generation sequencing (NGS) in NEN patients and determine their applicability to patient management.

Patients and methods: Eligible NEN patients on an institutional, IRB approved protocol, who had NGS as standard of care and were treated in the past 24 months, were included. Tumors were categorized by location and histologic grade. We explored the actual and theoretical eligibility for tumor agnostic treatments and enrollment in clinical trials as available on

Results: Between August 2017 and July 2019 a total of 107 patients were eligible. Globally 102 clinical trials included patients with NEN and specific mutations. NGS detected one (1%) case of MSI high and one (1) TRK fusion positive tumor, eligible for checkpoint inhibitor and TRK inhibitor therapy respectively. Moreover, tumor NGS identified 16 (15%) cases of MEN1, 1 (1%) of RET, 2 (2%) of NF1 and 3 (2.8%) of MUTYH, 2 (2%) TSC or TSC2, BRCA in 1 (1%). These patients were appropriately referred to genetic counseling. About 51.5% of patients would in theory be eligible for an investigational treatment based on NGS and global clinical trial availability. Fifty two of 107 patients (48.5%) would not have been eligible for a clinical trial with reasons varying between no mutations (24%), sample failure (8.4%) or nonactionable mutations (15.9%).

Conclusion: NGS can point to clinical trial eligibility and guide genetic counseling and should probably be considered as a standard approach in the evaluation of new metastatic NEN patients.

Short Communication

Pages: 1 - 5

Enabling Circulating Cell-free mRNA Profiling to Empower Cancer Early Detection

Chen-Hsiung Y*

DNA methylation occurs early in tumorigenesis and is highly pervasive across cancer types, making it suitable for early detection and intervention of cancer. Gene expression at the transcription level is reflected by epigenetic regulation of chromosome especially DNA methylation, therefore providing a parallel approach to achieve the same goal. Non-invasive and real-time gene expression profiling was performed on plasma circulating cell-free mRNA (cell free m-RNA) enriched from cancer patients using proprietary high sensitivity RT-qPCR assays. A plasma cell free m-RNA expression database covering 750 genes in 9 major cancer pathways was established with multiple layers of cancer type-specific characteristics: (i) the distribution of cell free m-RNA species across 9 major cancer pathways; (ii) the differential expression of target genes (high, medium or low expression); (iii) the global cell free m-RNA expression landscape in circulation; and (iv) the unique cell free m-RNA signatures to differentiate lung, breast, and pancreatic cancer. These novel blood-based metrics and biomarkers can be deployed for early detection and stratification of cancer.

Review Article

Pages: 1 - 3

Prevalence, Predictors and Prevention of Falls in Geriatric Patients

Kavitha Shanmugam*

Falls are all too common in the geriatric population, and they have devastating consequences. They are the leading cause of injury and death by injury in adults over the age of 65 years. Rates are higher in women. The prevalence of falls in India above the age of 60 years reported to range from 14% to 53%. One study assessed the prevalence of falls among older adults and its proportion was found to be 24.98%. Aging increases joint stiffness, decreased muscle strength, impaired neurologic feedback. The majority of fallers had experienced a fall in the morning, greater numbers had occurred indoors especially in bathrooms. The presence of slippery flooring inappropriate tiling inadequate lightening the absence of grab bar was the possible risk factors in the bathroom The sedentary group fell more frequently than the exercising group due to lack of stability. Impaired strength is a strong predictor of falls in most studies. A growing body of evidence indicates that the elderly respond to exercise training that this response continues at very old ages and extremes of fragility. Predisposing to falls are musculo-skeletal problems, visual defect, neurological illness, syncope vestibular causes, hypertension, postural hypotension and dementia. Drug-induced falls were commonly associated with sedatives and hypnotics. Home measures to prevent fall. Handrails for both sides of stairways, nonslip treads for bare-wood steps, a raised toilet seat or one with armrest, grab bars for the shower or tub. Place night lights in your bedroom, bathroom, and hallways. Place a lamp within reach of your bed for middle-of-the- night needs. Make clear paths to light switches that aren't near room entrances. Consider trading traditional switches for glow-in- the-dark or illuminated switches. Turn on the lights before going up or downstairs. 12. Store flashlights in easy-to-find places in case of power outages.

Research Article

Pages: 1 - 5

Expression of Human Epidermal Growth Factor in Escherichia coli by Intein Approach

Choi MC, Ma CHY, Lai ATL, Lin J and Kwong KWY*

Different approaches are used to express recombinant proteins without the requirement of post-translational modification in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Though E. coli may have a drawback in producing endotoxin, its short division time and high expression of the final product are significant in making use as a host to produce various recombinant proteins. Inteins have been discovered in multiples microorganisms in facilitating the expression of homologous proteins and it has been used as one of the crucial tools for the production of recombinant proteins due to its unique feature in auto-excising its fusion partner, which also known as exteins. In this communication, we employed a well-established gp41-1 mini-intein to facilitate the expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF). The study revealed that though the epidermal growth factor cannot be excised from the gp41-1 mini intein during the expression, it showed the capability of gp41-1 mini intein in processing intracellular expression of soluble EGF fusion protein. Different conditions for inducing the cleavage of exteins from inteins has been studied by many research groups, and reducing condition by using the DTT works well on the C-terminal cleavage of EGF from the gp41-1 mini intein. The final purified, different concentration of EGF was mixed with homemade aqueous cream and showed to be highly active in accelerating the healing rate of patients suffering from bedsores, diabetic foot ulcers and skin rupture.

Editorial Note

Pages: 1 - 1

Editorial Note for Special Issue on Cell Metabolism

Rita B*

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