Case Reports on Immunology |

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Case Reports on Immunology

Special Issue Article

Pages: 1 - 1

Spatial and temporal distribution of faecal indicators and multidrug resistant bacteria in a multiple-use freshwater lake: the case of Lake Hawassa, Ethiopia

Deresse Daka

Aquatic environments close to cities are frequently used as sources for water and at the same time overloaded with a variety of pollutants either through direct or indirect discharges of untreated wastes and sew¬age. This condition is also worsened by the indiscriminate disposal of untreated wastes and sewage vigorously into used water. Sewage contaminated waters are known to carry microorganisms, some of which are pathogenic to humans. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of temporal and spatial levels of microbial pollution and sources of pollution in Lake Hawassa. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Lake Hawassa, which was sampled twice during 2017. A total of 26 samples of lake water were collected from 14 stations using a boat. Entry points of incoming streams, waste receiving sites, and areas upstream of anthropogenic impact, recreational and bathing sites were considered. Microbiological characterisation was performed using selective media and basic biochemical tests. Antibiotic sensitivity was tested with different antibiotics using the Kirby-Bauer agar disk diffusion method. All samples were positive for pathogenic bacteria, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Enterobacteriaceae were the most common bacteria identified from the samples, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp, Proteus spp and Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus. The pre¬dominant bacteria found in the samples include E. coli, which constituted 22/26 (84.6%) of the total samples, followed by Salmonella and Shigella spp. All bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin and ampicillin. The Salmonella spp were sensitive only to norfloxacin and gentamicin. A spatial variation with the occurrence of bacterial isolates has been observed. High concentrations and many different species were found in areas of human activities and in areas receiving direct pollutants from the city. This study revealed that multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogenic bacteria are found in Lake Hawassa. There is a possibility of outbreak of diseases associated with the isolated antibiotic-resistant pathogens for which the antibiotic resistance genes are transportable within aquatic bacterial communities. We recommend that the city administration take care of the municipal wastewater or effluents from healthcare facilities that enter the lake. It is also recommended that the government take steps to control anthropogenic activities near the water body.

Short Communication

Pages: 2 - 2

NCoR1 and SMRT fine-tune inflammatory versus tolerogenic balance in dendritic cells by differentially regulating STAT3 signaling

Atimukta Jha

Dendritic cells are professional antigen presenting cells that fine-tune tolerogenic versus inflammatory responses. Through a combinatorial action of transcription factors (nuclear receptors) and their co-regulators. Among the best characterized co-regulators, NCoR1 and NCoR2/SMRT are known to interact with a plethora of regulatory factors and our objective is to unravel their impact on immune function. Moreover, their role in immune regulation in DCs is an untouched theme. Our finding shows that NCoR1 and its ortholog NCoR2 can have opposing effects in DC immune function. Silencing of NCoR2/SMRT in DCs led to increase in activation and resulted in a pro-inflammatory phenotype marked by increased IL6, IL12 and IL23 and a concomitant decrease in IL10 production. Consequently, co-culture experiment displayed that priming of naïve T cells with SMRT KD DCs led to increased proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells complimented with an increased Th1, Th17 and cytotoxic T cell response compared to control cells. SMRT depletion repressed mTOR-STAT3-IL10 signaling in cDC1 by downregulating NR4A1. Besides, NFkBIA and SOCS3 were down-regulated in SMRT knockdown cDC1, supporting increased production of inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, adoptive transfer of SMRT knockdown cDC1 in OVA-DTH induced footpad inflammation led to increased Th1/Th17 and reduced tumor burden after B16 melanoma injection by enhancing oncolytic CD8+ T-cell frequency, respectively. We also depicted decreased Smrt expression in Rheumatoid Arthritis, a Th1/Th17 disease.

Short Communication

Pages: 3 - 3

Ivermectin Use in COVID-19 Prophylaxis

Prof. Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy

Ivermectin is a safe, non-expensive and available drug. It has been previously approved by US FDA as a well-tolerable safe drug used previously for treatment and even mass prophylaxis of several parasitic drugs. It has been investigated in the current pandemic and proved a high effectiveness for chemoprophylaxis against SARS-CoV-2. Use of ivermectin can provide temporary protection that is not long-term immunity as occurs with a vaccine. Therefore, its use may be repeated. Ivermectin could be one of the hopes for ending the current dilemma of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic if used properly under medical supervision. It can be used for mass prophylaxis of the whole population at the same time especially for poor and middle-income countries that do not have the facilities to deliver good effective vaccines. Otherwise, it can be used as an emergency in case of exposure or contact with the patient and even used at the onset of infection. However, it may not be useful in treating severe cases because the virus can cause many organs to fail. We recommend further studies to confirm the effectiveness of ivermectin in preventing COVID- 19 rather than dismiss it on the basis of insufficient evidence. Studying is very easy, does not take much time and does not cause economic or health burden. This also does not require special equipment or abilities except for volunteers to join through the investigation.

Short Communication

Pages: 4 - 4

Challenges to nutrition management among patients using antiretroviral therapy in primary health ?centres? in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A phenomenological study

Helen Ali Ewune

Introduction: Nutritional management is a fundamental practice of concern to all patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The nature of HIV/AIDS and malnutrition impacts are interlocked and intensify one another. Objective: This study aimed to explore nutrition management challenges among people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in primary health centres in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods and materials: We used a hermeneutic (interpretive) phenomenological study design. The study used in-depth interviews to describe lived experiences among adult patients aged 18 and above. We selected the participants purposively until the saturation of the idea reached. We maintained the scientific rigor and trustworthiness by applying credibility, transferability, dependability, and conformability, followed by translation and re-reading of the data has been achieved. The data have been analyzed through inductive thematic analysis assisted by NVIVO version 12 pro software. Result: Nutrition management challenges for HIV patients have been described using six significant themes. The major themes were: acceptance of the disease and the health status; facilitators and barriers to treatment adherence; behavioural changes in eating patterns; experience of food insecurity issues; nutrition knowledge; and support. The themes have explained how patients using ART have been challenged to manage their nutrition ever since their diagnosis. Of all challenges, food insecurity is found to be the core reason for poor nutrition management. Conclusion and recommendation: We found that many factors in managing their nutrition challenged patients with HIV. There should be an increasing interest in managing food insecurity issues as food insecurity has been strongly related to other factors.

Short Communication

Pages: 5 - 5

The impact of COVID-19 on Iraqi Community: a descriptive study based on data reported from the Ministry of Health in Iraq

Mohammed Hadi Ali Al-Jumaili

Introduction: Coronavirus is a new pandemic disease that has emerged in Wuhan, China, and then spreads around the world. The cases number of the COVID-19, which have been daily reported in Iraq, has risen slowly. However, no confirmed study has been undertaken to evaluate the situation of the COVID-19 in concerning the confirmed cases, death cases, and recovered. Methodology: The current study is undertaken to describe and assess the COVID-19 of the present situation in Iraq out of the range of the confirmed, deaths and recovered cases from the date 21 February to 30 April 2020 in Iraq. Results: The study findings have revealed that there is a gradual increase of COVID-19 cases onwards until the top peak in 7th Apr. in which the cases reach 684, then decrease regularly. The total infected people of the study scope are 2085 persons according to the Ministry of Health in Iraq, while the World Health Organization (WHO) states 2003 person. The spatial distribution quantile map showed the hot spots in the province of Babylon, Maysan, and Diyala. However, less was found in three provinces (Nineveh, Salahaddin, and Al Anbar). The result shows that 66.9% recovered and 4.6% death cases out of total infected people. Conclusions: COVID-19 in Iraq comes to be limited via the procedures of Iraqi government. However, the infected people will be increased gradual ly and many international reports that predict the end of this pandemic in the world will be doubtful as there are many vaccines developed and under development which led to reduce to effect of this pandemic.

Short Communication

Pages: 6 - 6

Retrospective Vaccine cohort of COVID-19 patients


Introduction: In the control of the COVID-19 pandemic, community immunity with vaccines is the main element. Method: Cases who were hospitalized and followed up in the pandemic service with the diagnosis of COVID-19 for 13 months were included in the study. Those who were not vaccinated against COVID-19, those who had 1 dose of Sinovac or BioNTech vaccine, and those who had 2 doses of vaccine and had COVID-19 within 2 weeks after the second dose were included in the inadequately vaccinated group. Those who received 2 doses or more of Sinovac / BioNTech vaccine and had COVID- 19 2 weeks after the 2nd dose were included in the full dose vaccine group. Mutation type of 360 cases were recorded. Results: 44.5% of the cases were male and 55.5% were female. The mean age (Mean±SD, Min-Max) of 191 under-vaccinated cases was (58.29±15.61), while it was (72.12±12.65) of 169 full-dose vaccinated cases. The mean age (p=0.000), comorbid disease (p=0.000) was lower in the undervaccinated group. However, no significant difference was observed in ward length of stay (p=0562), CO RADS score (p=0172), mortality rate (p=1,000), and IC U admission rate (p=0.390). Of all cases, 44.17% were unvaccinated, 6.94% were single-dose vaccinated, 38.89% were double-dose vaccinated, and 10% were three-dose vaccinated. When the mutation status was examined, 36.11% of them were Delta mutation, 5.28% of them were British mutations and 13.33% of them were suspicious for variants. While the rate of mortality and admission to the ICU was 5.2% in the English mutation, no mortality was observed in cases with delta mutations or suspected variants. The rate of going to the ICU was 3.8% in Delta mutation and 2% in suspected variant cases. Conclusion: According to the results of our study, COVID 19 vaccines reduce hospital admissions at young ages. However, the effect of vaccine and mutation types on prognosis was not observed in ward patients.

Short Communication

Pages: 7 - 7

The relationship between established Immunity and the type of Covid-19 Vaccine

Kimia Ghods

Statement of problem: Corona virus epidemic which started in 2019, has caused a widespread disaster around the world. Many efforts have been to develop safe and effective vaccines to prevent Covid-19 disease, and eventually a number of vaccines with different platforms have been licensed for use in various countries. Numerous studies have shown that these different structures of Covid 19 vaccines each uniquely activate and strengthen the host immune system, and therefore the immunity obtained from each vaccine is different. In this article, we will discuss the difference between the structures of Covid 19 vac cines and its effect on immunity obtained. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: An electronic search applying specific Mesh terms like Covid 19, Vaccines, Immunity was carried out in PubMed and Google Scholar databases to collect data from 2020 until 2021, considering basic, pre-clinical, clinical and review studies. 42 relevant articles, focused on "Covid-19 vaccines and immunity" were selected and explored. Findings: According to the latest studies, all the Covid-19 vaccines platform will establish an acceptable immunity in the host. However, it has been shown that vaccines containing killed or inactivated virus produce lower immune responses than vaccines containing live virus and require booster doses. Conclusion & Significance: Undoubtably, all different types of Covid-19 vaccines can exclusively establish a good host immunity response. Therefore, the best solution to overcome this pandemic is to accelerate global vaccination and trust the outcome.

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