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Journal of Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology

ISSN: 2329-9002

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 9, Issue 4 (2021)

    Research Pages: 1 - 5

    Bat evolution, demographic data, and pre-existing conditions solve mystery of COVID-19 infection severity

    Felice L Bedford*

    It is hypothesized that the reason behind coronavirus severity stems from the unique adaptations in bats, where the virus co-evolved, to accommodate flight which generates large amounts of oxygen free radicals. Oxidative stress, particularly through excess endogenous Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Hydrogen (NADPH) oxidase production of superoxide, is the single unifying framework for explaining the large range of risk factors for severe coronavirus infection including aging, male gender, African- American race, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. Evidence is presented that death rate as a function of age better resembles the near-exponential rise seen in cancer, where oxidative stress is high, rather than the historical W or U-shaped functions of pandemic or seasonal flu. In addition, consideration of more than 10,000 Center for Disease Control and Montgomery County, Pennsylvania publicly available cases suggested a deviation from an exponential rise in the oldest-old, consistent with lower oxidative stress levels reported in that group. Gender analyses unexpectedly found male-to-female risk of mortality to be an inverted U-shaped function peaking at nearly 2.5 times from age 30 to 50 and may reverse to half the female risk at the oldest ages, providing a good fit to known oxidative stress gender differences across the lifespan. Race data were consistent with higher mortality from COVID-19 and higher oxidative stress levels in African Americans. It is argued pre-existing conditions that increase risk all share high oxidative stress levels while, intriguingly, the possibly protective Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Lupus have low levels of NADPH oxidase-derived oxygen free radicals. Strategies for prevention and treatment that follow from the theory are briefly covered including N-acetyl cysteine in older men to restore glutathione levels to more youthful values and especially exciting, pursuing the inhibition of NADPH oxidases not only with well-known melatonin but also with less known compounds such as the naturally occurring apocynin, which is also inexpensive and readily available.

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 2

    Paleontology - An over review

    Doolittle

    Paleontology, also spelled palaeontology or palæontology (/Ë?peɪliÉ?nË?tÉ?lÉ?dÊ?i, Ë?pæli-, -É?n-/), is that the scientific study of life that existed before , and sometimes including, the beginning of the Holocene (roughly 11,700 years before present). It includes the study of fossils to classify organisms and study interactions with one another and their environments (their paleoecology). Paleontological observations are documented as far back because the 5th century BCE. The science became established within the 18th century as a results of Georges Cuvier's work on anatomy , and developed rapidly within the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιÏ?ς, palaios, "old, ancient", á½?ν, on (gen. ontos), "being, creature", and λÏ?γος, logos, "speech, thought, study".

    Volume 9, Issue 2 (2021)

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Current Perspectives on Analytical Phylogenetics and Evolutionary Biology

      Brocchieri L

      Owing to a great deal of experimental research worldwide, the sub-cellular databases at a molecular and genetic level have expounded resulting in greater availability of multidimensional information. This has posed a prodigious challenge for evolutionary biologists to decode the information in a meaningful and logical manner for various applications. Concomitantly, the advancements in computational techniques and the development of improvised algorithms enabled biologists to decipher the intricacies of the cellular and molecular evolutionary patterns, species adaptation, and their diversification from the data at their disposal. Consequently, statistical data analysis has gained wide popularity among evolutionary biologists for deriving reliable interpretations based on the phylogenetic analyses and the exchange of ideas on the methodological development has gained greater importance.

      Young Research Forum Pages: 1 - 2

      Young Research Forum: Young Research Award at Euro Structural Biology 2021

      Ahmed Allam

         

      Volume 9, Issue 3 (2021)

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

        Various Specific Measures of Phylogenetic Diversity

        Gundlapally Sathyanarayana Reddy

        The branching pattern of ancestor–descendant relationships among ‘Taxa’ (e.g., species or their genes) is named a ‘phylogeny’. ‘Phylogenetics’ is that the process of attempting to estimate these historical relationships by examining information like DNA, protein sequences, or morphological (shape) characters from extant taxa. This information is usually presented employing a mathematical tree – a structure wont to describe the evolutionary history of the taxa at a high level. These trees are available several different varieties and may be inferred in several alternative ways . there's an excellent amount of effort being put into methods of estimating trees, also as determining particular phylogenies for species of interest.

         

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Citations: 650

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