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Photonic Crystals of Polymer Brushes and a Reflected Laser Beam System were used to Detect Heavy Metal Ions
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Journal of Lasers, Optics & Photonics

ISSN: 2469-410X

Open Access

Editorial - (2022) Volume 9, Issue 3

Photonic Crystals of Polymer Brushes and a Reflected Laser Beam System were used to Detect Heavy Metal Ions

Joseph Edwards*
*Correspondence: Joseph Edwards, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Florida, Florida, USA, Email:
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Florida, Florida, USA

Date of Submission: 10-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. jlop-22-65597; Editor assigned: 14-Mar-2022, Pre QC No. P-65597; Reviewed: 21-Mar-2022, QC No. Q-65597; Revised: 24-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. R-65597; Published: 31-Mar-2022 , DOI: 10.37421/2469-410X.2022.9.15
Citation: Joseph, Edwards. “Photonic Crystals of Polymer Brushes and a Reflected Laser Beam System were used to Detect Heavy Metal Ions.” J Laser Opt Photonics 9 (2022): 15
Copyright: © 2022 Edwards J. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Editorial

Polymer brushes are made by anchoring the ends of polymer chains to a surface, which results in a variety of shapes. The monomer species can alter the functional groups of polymer brushes arbitrarily during polymerization to tailor the physicochemical characteristics or functionalization of biomolecules. To immobilise bio macromolecules, functional groups such as carboxyl acid, primary amino, epoxy, and hydroxyl groups can be attached on the chains of polymer brushes. Polymer brushes' flexibility allows them to be surface modified for a variety of uses, including biological detection, cell affinity substrate and bacterial resistance. Polymer brushes are used to immobilise bio macromolecules on surfaces [1].

Because of the three-dimensional topographical structure, it is easier to manage a higher grafting density than with self-assembled monolayers [2]. Surface-initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization and surface initiated nitrox ide-mediated polymerization are all methods for grafting dense polymer brushes from substrates. These grafting from procedures can construct polymer brush topologies with high flexibility and achieve higher grafting density than grafting to methods. Because of its chemical diversity is the most widely used method for controlled radical polymerization. Although the molecular weight of a graft chain is an important characteristic that influences the properties of grafted materials for certain applications, real-time evaluation of polymer brushes is difficult due to the necessity to cleave covalent graft bonds [3].

A popular strategy is to remove covalent graft connections from substrates in order to evaluate polymer brushes directly using size exclusion chromatography. Polymer brushes' covalent graft bonds were severed from silica surfaces in prior experiments by dissolving the silica substrates with hydrofluoric acid. Furthermore, p-toluene sulfonic acid was used to break the covalent graft bonds formed by an acid-labile linker in polymer brushes grafted from silicon surfaces. These methods, however, are limited to HF-dissolvable substrates and HF-insensitive grafts. Harvesting polymer brushes from largearea substrates for molecular weight measurement is still challenging and cumbersome compared to nanoparticle substrates due to the considerably lesser amount of sample collection. The molecular weights and polydispersity are also determined using the free polymers produced simultaneously in the bulk solution during polymer brush grafting from a substrate. Experiments show that the molecular weights and PDI values of polymers in bulk solution and on substrates varied. Top-down semiconductor methods can be used to create one-dimensional/two-dimensional periodic gratings. The diffraction effect has been used to build a variety of sensors, including DNA, virus, ion, and humidity.

Diffracted beams are created when a light beam passes over a periodic grating. To identify target components, a correlation between the change in the optical characteristics of diffracted beams and the geometrical parameters of gratings with the refractive index is developed. The diffraction intensity efficiency of grating patterns, as well as a change in wavelength and spatial distance, is optical features of diffracted beams that can be utilised as markers to distinguish species and trace targets. In general, high-resolution patterns of periodic gratings provide vast diffraction spatial regions, which can improve sensing performance. Photonic crystals with periodic patterns have recently been produced as diffraction-based sensors, allowing light to interact with the periodic structure [4].

The diffraction effect, which occurs when light passes through regularly periodic patterns, is a fundamental phenomenon that has been studied in numerous optics engineering disciplines [5]. Periodic gratings are patterned with regular periodic structures on the wavelength scale to generate a desired diffraction effect. Different from aperiodic media, when light is incident on such a periodic medium, the reflection or transmission at various angles exhibits distinct spectrum features. An amide groups-modified trench bottom immobilises a gelatine backbone selectively on silicon surfaces for brominating to function as the initiator layer in. Poly is grafted onto silicon surfaces as a line array of diffraction gratings from brominated gelatine backbones.

Conflict of Interest

None.

References

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