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Fluid Mechanics: Open Access

ISSN: 2476-2296

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 8, Issue 6 (2021)

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

    Investigation of Particle Size Effect on Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of Distilled Water-Al2o3 Nano Fluids

    Samdhani Shaik*

    DOI: 10.37421/2476-2296.21.8.e120

    Nano fluids are dispersions of high thermal conductivity nano particles during a base fluid, and offer potential to enhance thermal conductivity of it. Literature data on the effect of particle size on the thermal conductivity enhancement of nano fluids are inconsistent and limited. Hence within the present study, the effect of particle size on thermal conductivity enhancement of distilled water- Al2O3 nano fluid has been investigated experimentally using transient hot wire apparatus. The particle volume concentration of Al2O3 nano particles for mean diameter of 15 nm and 60 nm are varied between 0.1 and 3%. The enhancement within the thermal conductivity is approximately 22% and 17% for 15 nm and 60 nm particle size respectively, at 3% particle volume concentration at 30οC. These experimental results are according to the predictions from the Brownian movement based model, show that the enhancement within the thermal conductivity of the distilled water- Al2O3 nano fluid decreases with a rise within the particle size.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

    Magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection during a nanofluid filled tubular enclosure

    Subhani Shaik*

    DOI: 10.37421/2476-2296.21.8.e121

    Mixed convection flow during a tubular enclosure crammed with nanofluid within the presence of a magnetic flux is numerically investigated within the present study. Rock bottom and top curved wall of the enclosure are respectively kept isothermally hot and funky while the remaining walls are insulated. The governing equations are formulated supported Boussinesq assumptions and solved with finite element method. The computation is administered for mixed convection regime and also natural convection regime with fixed values of remaining parameters. An in depth parametric discussion is presented for the physical properties of flow and temperature distributions in terms of streamlines, isotherms, average heat transfer rate within the flow domain. The results show that the flow and temperature fields suffering from varying of pertinent parameters. Moreover, heat transfer rate is increased by 139.50% with the rise in Richardson number from 0.1 to 100. The increasing rate of warmth transfer thanks to Ri is respectively decreased by 58.11% with varying of Ha from 0 to 60 and increased by 23.97% with the addition of nanoparticles up to three. Comparison is performed against the previously published results on the idea of special cases and located to be in excellent agreement.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

    Experimental investigation of the kinetics properties of the nano petroleum during a vertical line

    Munna Shaik.

    In this study, experiments are designed to research the consequences of ultrasonic flowers of zinc nanoparticles on the properties of petroleum flow. The rheological and thermal properties of the petroleum containing nanoparticles were investigated in vitro. The nanoparticles were prepared by ultrasonic method in petroleum . Experiments were administered during a hot tube for plain oil and nanoparticles containing flowers of zinc. The effect of temperature changes, addition of nanoparticles and tube length on the values of friction coefficient, velocity, conductivity coefficient, overall heat transfer coefficient, thermal diffusion coefficient and kinematic viscosity were investigated. For nano oil (containing 1wt.% Zinc oxide) Reynolds number decreased to 0.99 initial value, Prandtl number decreased to 0.951 initial value, Peclet number increased to 0.94 initial value.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

    Human factors in multi-objective optimization of water systems

    Rafi Shaik.

    The design of water system systems is taken into account a combinatorial optimization task during which the diameter of every one among the pipes are often considered as a choice variable. The matter is to work out a group of diameters in order that the value function is minimized (depending on the length, diameter and material of the pipes) subject to hydraulic and commercial constraints. However, the chosen set of diameters will have a big influence on the energy losses thanks to the hydraulic balance of the system. Therefore, it's necessary to use techniques that allow finding solutions that are viable under multiple criteria. Within the present work the incorporation of the human think about the decision-making process during the multi-objective optimization of the planning of the water system system is shown. The event of algorithms, products of the sensible experience and implementation in CAD systems, influences the decrease of the search universe within the optimization as measured using the notation Big-O. Benefits provided by the CAD System to assist the designer are presented. The paper ends with conclusion and recommendation of future works.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

    Investigation of temperature profile for nanofluid, ammonia and methanol during a heat pipe

    Rabbani Shaik.

    The authors investigate thermal performance of pure water, nanofluid, ammonia and methanol on the warmth pipe with 18 cm long and 0.01m in diameter during this paper, approximately. The typical difference between temperature profile of ethanol and methanol is about 36.4% during this case. The three polynomials with second order are defined during this study. The fluid passes through the warmth pipe, experimentally. The curve fitting and regression of the experimental correlations show the accuracy of three curves are proper then the predictions of temperature profile within the external zones are feasible.

    Volume 8, Issue 1 (2021)

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

      Fluid Mechanics of the Cartesian Physics

      Abdul B Shakir

      Nanocrystalline  materials  such  as  Sn  doped  In2O3  Indium  Tin  Oxide  (ITO)  were  prepared  by  this  Combustion  technique and characterized. Presence of electronic centers in Nanocrystalline ITO is observed from Raman studies and the same has been confirmed by photoluminescence studies. 

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Gravity, Mass and Super Force United

      Muhammad Zain Bin

      The oxidation properties of ITO were studied by X-ray Diffract meter grain sizes are confirmed by structural studies. As against the expectation of oxide on individual Nano grains of In-Sn alloy, ITO Nano grains grew into faceted Nano grains on heat treatment in air and O2 atmosphere. 

      Editor Note Pages: 1 - 2

      Studies on Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of CNT NPs

      Muhammad S Masood

      The growth  of  ITO  under  O2  atmosphere  showed  pentagon  symmetry.  This  Nanocrystalline  ITO  has  been  studied  using  Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. 

      Editor Note Pages: 1 - 2

      Mechanics at Atomic Scale

      Jaya Mouna

      Structural studies by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) showed the presence of dominant β phase with a minor quantity of α phase. In EPR, isotopic chemical shift peaks were observed and they are assigned to originate from the α, β phases of ITO and grain boundary component respectively. From this study, different atomic arrangements were identified in grain boundaries compared to the same within the grain in Nanocrystalline ITO.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

      Temperature Dependent Variable Properties on Mixed Convectiv with Heat Transfer and Viscous Dissipation

      Mohamed B Saleem

      The atomic arrangement in the grain boundary seems to be somewhat different from regular periodic arrangement whereas inside the grain there is a good periodic arrangement of atoms. Above 5 mol%, Sn ions form correlated clusters, which lead to broadening. These EPR spectra were formed to contain two different components, one from the single isolated ions and the other from the clusters.

      Volume 8, Issue 5 (2021)

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Die shape optimization for extrudate swells using feedback control

        Samdhani Shaik*

        DOI: 10.37421/2476-2296.21.8.e115

        In this paper we propose a completely unique approach to unravel the inverse problem of three-dimensional die design forextrudate swell, employing a real-time active control scheme. to the present end, we envisioned a feedback connectionbetween the corner-line finite element method, wont to predict the positions of the free surfaces of theextrudate, and therefore the controller. The corner-line method allows for local mesh refinement and transient flow tobe taken under consideration. We show the validity of this method by showing optimizationresults for 2D axisymmetric extrusion flows of a viscoelastic fluid for various Weissenberg numbers. In 3D wefirst provides a proof of concept by showing the results of a Newtonian fluid exiting dies with increasing complexityin shape. Finally, we show that this method is in a position to get the specified extrudate shape of extrudates of aviscoelastic fluid for various Weissenberg numbers and different amounts of shear-thinning.extrusion may be a common production technique within the polymer pro-cessing industry to get products with a desired cross-section. Inthis process a polymer is molten and pushed through a die with acertain cross-sectional shape, to get a product (extrudate) with thissame cross-sectional shape. a standard requirement on the extrudate isdimensional precision. However, the size of the extrudate arehighly influenced by a phenomenon called extrudate swell, where theextrudate starts to expand thanks to internal stresses within the polymer onceit leaves the die.The swelling process involves complex dynamics influenced bymany parameters like viscoelasticity and temperature.
        Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

        Benchmark solutions for flows with rheologically complex interfaces

        Makbul Shaik*

        DOI: 10.37421/2476-2296.21.8.e116

        Complex fluid–fluid interfaces determine for an outsized part the macroscopic material properties of foams and emulsions that appear in applications like food, materials processing and consumer care products. As a step towards predicting these properties, a 2D axisymmetric and a 3D finite element model are developed for simulating the dynamics of one Newtonian drop by a Newtonian matrix fluid with a rheologically complex sharp interface in between. Interfaces with constant interfacial surface tension and with viscous, elastic and viscoelastic extra interfacial stresses are considered. The model has been validated by means of the tactic of manufactured solutions and by comparison with results from other studies using different discretisation methods. Higher-order convergence in space and time is obtained, demonstrating correct implementation of our numerical methods. Benchmark solutions for a drop with a Kelvin–Voigt interface under simple shear flow are provided. Compared to a viscous interface, the drop deformation becomes smaller and therefore the drop becomes less oriented within the direction of flow if interfacial elasticity is added. Fluid–fluid interfaces play a key role within the processing and functioning of multicomponent materials. samples of such materials are emulsions, where fluid drops of 1 phase are dispersed into another fluid phase immiscibly. Dispersion are often useful for designing material structures to e.g. gain synergy of properties. Emulsions are partly for this reason utilized in a spread of applications like in food, paint, cosmetics, materials processing (e.g. polymer blends) and within the industry , but they also appear in nature and biology. The interfacial area to volume ratio in emulsions is comparatively large, since albeit the drops in e.g. polymer blends are small in size (about tens of); they're present in large quantities. Therefore, the interfacial properties determine for an outsized part the general macroscopic material behaviour. When applying flow to an emulsion, the structure is continuously developing through the consecutive and simultaneous deformation, break-up and coalescence of drops interacting with one another and therefore the surrounding fluid during a complex manner. Curvature changes of the interface are opposed or helped by interfacial surface tension between the phases. Surfactants that are often added as stabilisers to the mixture and adsorb at the interface, lower the interfacial surface tension to hamper or hinder coalescence Hence, surfactants are required to get stable emulsions, but they also further complicate the behaviour of the interface. Surfactant concentration gradients within the interface cause spatially varying Marangoni stresses. Surfactant transport within the interface or between the interface and therefore the bulk introduces non-trivial time scales. Besides, interactions within the interface thanks to a big microstructure cause extra and deviatoric interfacial stresses and possibly rheologically complex behaviour of the interface, These complex interfaces can behave intrinsically viscoelastic.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Efficient computation of global resolvent modes

        Mustak Shaik*

        DOI: 10.37421/2476-2296.21.8.e117

        In this paper we propose a completely unique approach to unravel the inverse problem of three-dimensional die design for extrudate swell, employing a real-time active control scheme. To the present end, we envisioned a feedback connection between the corner-line finite element method, wont to predict the positions of the free surfaces of the extrudate, and therefore the controller. The corner-line method allows for local mesh refinement and transient flow to be taken under consideration (Spanjaards et al., 2019). We show the validity of this method by showing optimization results for 2D axisymmetric extrusion flows of a viscoelastic fluid for various Weissenberg numbers. In 3D we first provides a proof of concept by showing the results of a Newtonian fluid exiting dies with increasing complexity in shape. Finally, we show that this method is in a position to get the specified extrudate shape of extrudates of a viscoelastic fluid for various Weissenberg numbers and different amounts of shear-thinning. Extrusion may be a common production technique within the polymer processing industry to get products with a desired cross-section. during this process a polymer is molten and pushed through a die with a particular cross-sectional shape, to get a product (extrudate) with this same cross-sectional shape. A standard requirement on the extrudate is dimensional precision. However, the size of the extrudate are highly influenced by a phenomenon called extrudate swell, where the extrudate starts to expand thanks to internal stresses within the polymer once it leaves the die.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Particle migration in channel flow of an elastoviscoplastic fluid

        Rashid Shaik*

        DOI: 10.37421/2476-2296.21.8.e118

        We study the dynamics of a neutrally buoyant rigid sphere carried by an elastoviscoplastic fluid during a pressure-driven channel flow numerically. The yielding to flow is marked by the yield stress which splits the flow into two main regions: the core unyielded region and two sheared yielded regions on the brink of the walls. The particles which are initially within the plug region are observed to translate with an equivalent velocity because the plug with none rotation/migration. Keeping the Reynolds number fixed, we study the effect of elasticity (Weissenberg number) and plasticity (Bingham number) of the fluid on the particle migration inside the sheared regions. within the viscoelastic limit, within the range of studied parameters (low elasticity), inertia is dominant and therefore the refore the particle finds its equilibrium position between the centreline and the wall. An equivalent happens within the viscoplastic limit, yet the yield surface plays the role of centreline. However, the mixture of elasticity and plasticity of the suspending fluid (elastoviscoplasticity) trigger particle-focusing: within the elastoviscoplastic flow, for a particular range of Weissenberg numbers isolated particles migrate all the thanks to the centreline by getting into the core plug region. This behaviour suggests a particle-focusing process for inertial regimes which wasn't previously found during a viscoelastic or viscoplastic carrying fluid.Transporting suspension of particles during a yield-stress fluid may be a crucial problem to be understood thanks to intrinsic complexities from the carrying fluid rheology to the particle dynamics. a brief list of applications may include, but isn't limited to, construction and oil & gas industries. Efforts of Segré & Silberber and other scholars uncovered the behaviour of particles suspended during a Newtonian fluid Poiseuille flow from theoretical frameworks that extensively revealed features of this problem at the low Reynolds number limit, to experimental validations/extensions, Further studies uncovered the features of the matter in non-cylindrical conduits and migration of deformable and non-spherical particles.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

        Extrudate shape of three-dimensional viscoelastic, non-isothermal extrusion flows

        Arshad Shaik*

        DOI: 10.37421/2476-2296.21.8.e119

        A 3D transient non-isothermal finite element code is developed to predict the extrudate shape of viscoelastic fluids emerging from an asymmetric keyhole shaped die. The corner-line method is employed to model the movement of the free surfaces. The code is tested using two benchmark problems. First the corner-line method is tested employing a trumpet shaped object during a 3D uniaxial extensional flow. Secondly, the implementation of the energy balance and therefore the viscoelastic material behaviour is tested employing a non-isothermal pipeflow. For both benchmark problems convergence was obtained, giving confidence that the 3D non-isothermal swell problem is correctly implemented. The influence of shear-thinning, elasticity and temperature on the form of the extrudate is systematically studied. Results are shown for isothermal flows also as for non-isothermal flows, with isothermal and non-isothermal die walls. Results for isothermal die walls show increasing extrudate swelling with increasing elasticity which the swelling opposes extrudate bending. Shear-thinning on the opposite hand, opposes swelling, which initially promotes bending, but also flattens the asymmetric velocity profile, resulting in less extrudate bending for top amounts of shear-thinning. Furthermore, extrudate bending was observed even for purely viscous, isothermal extrudates, suggesting that bending is caused by asymmetry within the viscous stresses. Extrudate swelling are often influenced by the wall temperature of the die and non-isothermal die walls can cause a change in bending direction.

        Extrusion is widely utilized in the polymer processing industry. Common requirement on the extrudate is dimensional accuracy. However, the size of the extrudate are highly influenced by a phenomenon called extrudate swell. For Newtonian fluids, having a continuing viscosity, extruded from cylindrical dies, the swell ratio is about 13% when physical phenomenon, inertia and gravitational forces are often neglected. For viscoelastic fluids, the swelling is far larger and therefore the final diameter of the extrudate are often several times the diameter of the die. This effect is attributed to normal stresses within the material.

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