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Fluid Mechanics: Open Access

ISSN: 2476-2296

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 8, Issue 1 (2021)

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

    Fluid Mechanics of the Cartesian Physics

    Abdul B Shakir

    Nanocrystalline  materials  such  as  Sn  doped  In2O3  Indium  Tin  Oxide  (ITO)  were  prepared  by  this  Combustion  technique and characterized. Presence of electronic centers in Nanocrystalline ITO is observed from Raman studies and the same has been confirmed by photoluminescence studies. 

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Gravity, Mass and Super Force United

    Muhammad Zain Bin

    The oxidation properties of ITO were studied by X-ray Diffract meter grain sizes are confirmed by structural studies. As against the expectation of oxide on individual Nano grains of In-Sn alloy, ITO Nano grains grew into faceted Nano grains on heat treatment in air and O2 atmosphere. 

    Editor Note Pages: 1 - 2

    Studies on Photoacoustic Spectroscopy of CNT NPs

    Muhammad S Masood

    The growth  of  ITO  under  O2  atmosphere  showed  pentagon  symmetry.  This  Nanocrystalline  ITO  has  been  studied  using  Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements. 

    Editor Note Pages: 1 - 2

    Mechanics at Atomic Scale

    Jaya Mouna

    Structural studies by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) showed the presence of dominant β phase with a minor quantity of α phase. In EPR, isotopic chemical shift peaks were observed and they are assigned to originate from the α, β phases of ITO and grain boundary component respectively. From this study, different atomic arrangements were identified in grain boundaries compared to the same within the grain in Nanocrystalline ITO.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

    Temperature Dependent Variable Properties on Mixed Convectiv with Heat Transfer and Viscous Dissipation

    Mohamed B Saleem

    The atomic arrangement in the grain boundary seems to be somewhat different from regular periodic arrangement whereas inside the grain there is a good periodic arrangement of atoms. Above 5 mol%, Sn ions form correlated clusters, which lead to broadening. These EPR spectra were formed to contain two different components, one from the single isolated ions and the other from the clusters.

    Volume 8, Issue 4 (2021)

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Fluid dynamic

      Shaik Akbar*

      In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a sub discipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids—liquids and gases. It has several sub disciplines, including aerodynamics (the study of air and other gases in motion) and hydrodynamics (the study of liquids in motion). Fluid dynamics has a wide range of applications, including calculating forces and moments on aircraft, determining the mass flow rate of petroleum through pipelines, predicting weather patterns, understanding nebulae in interstellar space and modelling fission weapon detonation.

      Fluid dynamics offers a systematic structure—which underlies these practical disciplines—that embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws derived from flow measurement and used to solve practical problems. The solution to a fluid dynamics problem typically involves the calculation of various properties of the fluid, such as flow velocity, pressure, density, and temperature, as functions of space and time. Before the twentieth century, hydrodynamics was synonymous with fluid dynamics. This is still reflected in names of some fluid dynamics topics, like magneto hydrodynamics and hydrodynamic stability, both of which can also be applied to gases.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics

      David A Rubenstein*

      Fluid mechanics is that the study of fluids at rest and in motion. A fluid is defined as a cloth that continuously deforms under a continuing load. There are five relationships that are most useful in hydraulics problems: kinematic, stress, conservation, regulating, and constitutive. The analysis of hydraulics problems are often altered counting on the selection of the system of interest and therefore the volume of interest, which govern the simplification of vector quantities. By assuming that a fluid may be a continuum, we make the idea that there are not any in homogeneities within the fluid. Viscosity relates the shear rate to the shear stress. Definition of a fluid as Newtonian depends on whether the viscosity is constant at various shear rates. Newtonian fluids have constant viscosities, whereas non-Newtonian fluids have a nonconstant viscosity. for many bio fluid applications, we'll assume that the fluid is Newtonian.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

      Nano biotechnology

      Jae-Seong Lee*

      Nano biotechnology, bio nanotechnology, and Nano biology are terms that ask the intersection of nanotechnology and biology. As long as the topic is one that has only emerged very recently, bio nanotechnology and Nano biotechnology function blanket terms for various related technologies.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Hydraulics assumptions for the computation of electrical conductivity of flowing human blood

      Katrin Ellermann

      Impedance cardiography may be a non-invasive methodology for measuring cardiodynamic parameters, like stroke volume and pulse , also as flow . For the measurement, the electrical conductivity of blood is vital . The conductivity of blood depends on various parameters, like the haematocrit value also because the red blood cells’ (RBC) shape and orientation. In models, the response is typically suffering from uncertainty, which can cause inaccurate diagnosis . Therefore, a ranking of the influence of the model’s input factors could also be necessary. Also, physically and physiologically correct assumptions are fundamental for the accuracy of the model. the idea for predicting the conductivity of blood during this study is that the Maxwell–Fricke theory, which allows computing the electrical bulk conductivity of quiescent blood. For flowing blood, hydraulics has got to be coupled within the modelling phase. Nevertheless, some assumptions may cause invalid or inaccurate results. supported a worldwide sensitivity analysis, this work shows which fluid mechanical assumptions are incorrect and will be avoided. Moreover, positive effects supported accurate rheological modelling of the fluid properties are shown, and therefore the factors with a decisive influence on the computed conductivity change of flowing blood are illustrated.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

      Intramolecular interactions in paracyclophanes

      Birsa M L

      Since its discovery in 1949 by Brown and Farthing, paracyclophane has been intensely studied by chemists. Consisting of two benzene rings bound together by two ethano bridges, the paracyclophane core can undergo chemical transformations specific to both aliphatic and aromatic compounds, resulting in a wide variety of functionalized paracyclophanes. Because of the rigid molecular framework provided by the paracyclophane moiety and its short interannular distance, functional groups in pseudo-geminally substituted paracyclophanes are often held in such a position as to allow highly specific reactions to take place between them. Both the parent hydrocarbon and its derivatives have been used in asymmetric catalysis, optoelectronics and polymer synthesis. Acetylene-substituted paracyclophanes are important because of the ability of the acetylene moiety to easily undergo coupling and addition reactions, leading to new derivatives that contain one or more units of the paracyclophane core. Orthogonal -bridges have been introduced into paracyclophanes by the reaction of the pseudo-geminal bisacetylene with various monoacetylenes and nitriles. Mono, pseudo-gem and pseudo-para ethynylcyclophanes and bis(azides) have been employed as addition partners in CuAAC reactions to design and build complex extended molecular scaffolds. The reactivity of the resulting triazoles was investigated under photochemical conditions. A variety of newly substituted paracyclophanes were identified; deazotization of pseudo-gem and pseudo-para adducts provided indolophane derivatives. A photochemical rearrangement from a pseudo-para adduct to a pseudo-ortho product was identified.

      Volume 8, Issue 2 (2021)

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Numerical Methods for Viscoelastic Fluid Flows

        Shaik Feroz*

        Many synthetic fluids, still as some natural fluids, show complicated rheological behavior during which viscoelasticity may be a relevant fluid property. Over the last forty years, machine physics (CR), the appliance of machine fluid dynamics (CFD) to fluids with non-Newtonian physics, has developed into a mature discipline, that at the same time helps to grasp a good vary of physical phenomena whereas conjointly providing helpful tools for engineering style. Metallic element refers to flow simulations with fluids that area unit delineated by non-Newtonian models, additional complicated than the generalized Newtonian fluid, since specific techniques to deal with the inherent numerical difficulties related to the complicated constituent equations area unit required albeit the simulations area unit geared toward a hydraulics perspective.

        In the late 1970s, at a time once Newtonian CFD had already began to take place into competitor industrial merchandise, the big scatter of numerical results for a similar elastic non-Newtonian flow issues and therefore the corresponding conflicting physical interpretations of information, that were pretty much related to the shortage of accuracy and convergence difficulties succeeding from the questionable high–Weissenberg range drawback (HWNP), LED to the institution of a series of standard workshops that introduced correct benchmarks and centered analysis efforts within the field. The biyearly International Workshop on Numerical strategies in Non-Newtonian Flows started in 1979 in Rhode Island, USA, and had its nineteenth edition in 2019, in Peso prosecuting officer Régua, Portugal. The start of the 21st century saw vital progress in attempt the HWNP through a more robust understanding of its causes and therefore the succeeding development of varied acceptable numerical techniques. chromium |Cr| atomic range 24 metallic element metal might finally be employed in unknown territory within the Weissenberg range (Wi)–Reynolds number (Re) space, therefore changing into a lot of correct and trustworthy tool, only if the adequate essential equation is chosen for the actual fluid and flow below investigation.

        The relevance of this last point should be emphasized. If we take for granted the description of structurally simple fluids as Newtonian, in all possible flows, the description of complex fluids is often incomplete, except for very limited simple flow kinematics. Therefore, numerical or analytical flow descriptions in many real flows will be qualitative at most. In this review, we do not address the difficulties associated with the proper rheological characterization of real fluids by adequate constitutive equations, an important area of research on its own; rather, we assume that the adopted model adequately describes the intended fluid properties. Therefore, the numerical methods discussed here are for constitutive equations at the same level of description as the equations governing the conservation of mass and momentum, i.e., at the continuum level, also called macroscopic-scale level. Nevertheless, at the end of this review, we provide some references for methods relying on mesoscopic-scale-level fluid descriptions.

        An early textbook, written by Crochet et al. (1984), discussed numerical methods for viscoelastic fluid flows based on the finite-element method (FEM) and finitedifference method (FDM). The enormous progress over the following two decades was covered by Owens & Phillips (2002), but the finite-volume method (FVM) was not addressed in detail. The FVM is a relative latecomer to CR and its extension for viscoelastic fluids has been presented. But further developments and new computational tools have become available since then. Therefore, this review focuses essentially on the state of the art, leaning toward the FVM, while providing potential future lines of research in numerical methods and new applications in viscoelastic fluid flow simulations.

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