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Journal of Pollution

ISSN: 2684-4958

Open Access

Volume 4, Issue 2 (2021)

Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

Strategies to improve the performances of bakery products made from ancient wheat???s

Alessio Cappelli, Enrico Cini

 

 

Abstract

The growing consumers’ attention regarding the inclusion of foods able to provide health benefits in one’s diet, is currently a theme of fundamental importance. Between these products, ancient wheat’s and whole wheat flours seem to be the most appealing in the cereal industry thanks to their nutritional content. Nevertheless, ancient wheat’s show worse rheological and technological performances compared to modern cultivars, in particular when using whole wheat flour. According to Migliorini, et al. (2016), the content of starch and protein is strongly influenced by annual variability and agronomic practices. This highlights the need for further investigation to understand the relationship between different agronomic practices and the rheological and technological properties of flours and dough’s made from ancient wheat’s. Furthermore, the greatest challenge for the bakery industry still remains the improvement of the technological properties of bakery products made from ancient wheat’s. In this paper, some of the strategies aimed to face this challenge are proposed. Starting from the improvement of the rheological properties of dough’s made from ancient wheat, Capella, et al. (2018) provided a rheological study which allows to identify the optimal water content to be added, through models represented by level curves diagrams. Moreover, regarding the improvement of bakery products based on ancient wheat, the sourdough fermentation (Sae, et al. 2017) and the reduction of free lipid in the doughs (Collar & Angelonia, 2014) seems to be the most interesting strategies. Finally, future strategies finalized to improve the technological properties of bakery products made from ancient wheat’s are related to the assessment of suitability and bread-making aptitude of ancient wheat flours blended with the most interesting and innovative sources of proteins, i.e. legume and insect flours. Thanks to their low fertilization requirements and high consumer demand, ancient wheats and old durum wheat cultivars represent an attractive option for the marginal areas of Mediterranean environments no longer cultivated due to the low grain yields attainable using modern wheat cultivars. Dual-purpose utilization may increase their value in these cropping systems, but no information is available on the suitability of ancient wheat species to this type of utilization. To fill this gap, Khorasan, einkorn, and emmer wheats, clipped at the terminal spikelet stage or left unclipped, were compared in a two-year field trial. The grains were sown in the month of October, in Sardinia (41°N, 80 m asl), Italy, on low-fertility soils and with low-medium fertilization rates. Einkorn cultivars produced the highest biomass yield (2–3 t ha−1), reflecting the longer time to the onset of the terminal spikelet stage (119–138 days). After clipping, all species recovered their ability to intercept radiation to the levels of the unclipped crops, but clipping lowered their radiation use-efficiency. Grain yield was not penalized by clipping: the increase in the harvest index compensated for the decrease in biomass. Here we show for the first time that ancient wheat species are suitable for dual-purpose utilization (herbage plus grain in the same season) rendering them valuable for marginal areas; this was because the early sowing adopted for dual-purpose utilization allowed them to take full advantage of their lateness in terms of herbage yield, and to bring flowering forward (i.e. make it earlier) so that a satisfactory grain yield was obtained, even under severe water stress. Dual-purpose utilization of ancient wheats increases the sustainability of mixed cropping systems, by making herbage available to animals in a critical period, without decreasing the grain yield attainable after grazing in the same season. The low grain yields attainable with modern wheat cultivars in marginal areas with low soil fertility levels is one  Breeding has led modern wheat cultivars towards a common phenology well suited to high inputs and grain-only production. The lateness of old durum wheat cultivars and ancient wheat species contributes to making them suitable to dual-purpose utilization, because it is generally associated with high final leaf numbers affects the capture and use of radiation and water – two processes associated with each other due to their common dependence on leaf area development. Species differences in leaf area development and recovery after grazing/clipping are expected to result in varying levels of grain yield reduction as a consequence of their reduced leaf area. Leaf area governs growth by affecting I) the radiation interception capacity and the photosynthetic rate, and ii) water utilization due to its direct effect upon transpiration and the transpiration/evaporation ratio. The efficiency in the use of these The suitability of three ancient wheat species – Khorasan, einkorn, and emmer – to both grain-only and dual-purpose utilization was evaluated in a cropping system characterized by low soil fertility and low-medium fertilization rates in a typical Mediterranean environment, and analysed in terms of resource use and capture, i.e. based on a framework that allows for an interpretation of the mechanisms through which leaf area development and removal influence grain yield. The old durum wheat cultivar Senators Capella was also included in the experiment as a control species because it is suited to the same marginal environments. Thus, the genotypic variation in time to terminal spikelet appearance was so great that it cancelled out any other difference associated with the ability to capture radiation (e.g. number of leaves, number of tillers, growth habit), whereas the genotypic variability in water and radiation use efficiency were not relevant for biomass production by the terminal spikelet stage. This explains why cultivar x year interaction was not observed for biomass at clipping in spite of significant interaction for almost all the traits associated with capture and use of resources. Suitability to dual-purpose utilization can be evaluated by considering both the biomass and the grain yield, together with the extent of the reduction in grain yield brought about by grazing, since dual-purpose use can be a convenient management option if grain yield is not significantly reduced (Harrison et al. ). The most critical aspect in determining the impact of clipping on grain yield is the ability of crops to recover their leaf area and photosynthetic activity after clipping. In this experiment, clipping differentially affected the ability of crops to intercept radiation via its effects on phenology, plant height, and lodging incidence.

Short Communication Pages: 3 - 4

Healing with food: Treating gastrointestinal dysfunctions by diet prescription and supplementation

Mireille Rizk Corbani

Abstract

Statement of the Problem: Many people are suffering from digestive problems, ranging from dysphagia, bloating, constipation, gut flora and nutritional insufficiencies. We are also seeing more gluten intolerances in patients with chronic diseases. We will try to identify when to consider a gastro-intestinal specific dietary program to treat cases of GI dysfunction. Identify as well the Factors including age, genetics and diet that may influence micro-biome composition, and how they are related in digestion and absorption. Also we will identify factors that inhibit optimal health and function of digestive treat Recall pros and cons of conventional and unconventional diagnostic tools to assess malabsorption & maldigestion Learn when to prescribe specific food plan: (Low- FODMAP, specific carbohydrate, renew food plan, elimination, restorative, etc.…) And when and what to prescribe as botanicals and nutraceuticals to improve outcomes In patients with GI dysfunctions. References are adapted from Gibson PR, Barrett JS. Clinical Ramifications of malabsorption of Fructose and other short-chain carbohydrates. Nutrition issues in Gastroenterology. Beyer PL, Caviar EM McCallum RW. Fructose intake at current levels in the United States may cause gastrointestinal distress in normal adults. A major consideration in choosing a diet to feed an animal with gastrointestinal (GI) disease is the digestibility of the nutrients. Typical maintenance pet foods have protein and carbohydrate (CHO) digestibility’s ranging from 70% to 85% on a dry matter (DM) basis.1 Pet foods formulated for dietary therapy of GI disease have CHO and protein digestibility’s ≥90% (DM).1 Therapeutic diets for GI disease also contain low levels of fat (e.g., <15% DM in cats, and <10% to 15% DM in dogs), are lactose-free, and have reduced amounts of dietary fibre and other poorly digestible CHO. There are many different, highly digestible, therapeutic diets available. However, each formula is unique, and, thus, a different individual response can occur. Thus, if the animal does not respond to the diet as expected, choose another highly digestible diet with a completely different ingredient profile. The amount of a diet fed should be calculated based on the energy needs of the individual animal. Although there is disagreement among nutritionists on the best equation for determining the energy requirements of sick animals, at the very least, the resting (or basal) energy requirements should be met In general, the equation recommended most commonly for this purpose is 70 x (body weight in kg). However, if you need to use a linear equation in a pinch, the equation 30 x (body weight in kg) + 70 will approximate the values for the aforementioned exponential equation, as long the animal weighs more than 2 kg and less than 45 kg. Once resting energy requirements are determined, increase the kcal requirement by multiplying that number by an illness factor of 1.25–1.50 for cats, or 1.5–2.0 for dogs to account for the animals increased energy needs. The next aspect to consider concerning the diet is meal size, frequency, and consistency. Generally, small meals (e.g., <1/3 stomach capacity) are fed several times per day (meals). The feline stomach has a smaller capacity (approximately 60 mL/kg) and is less distensible than the stomach of a dog (capacity near 80 to 90 mL/kg), which is designed for more storage. Feeding small meals more frequently reduces gastric distension, decreases gastric acid secretion, and may reduce nausea, vomiting, and gastroesophageal reflux.  Furthermore, the larger the volume of food ingested, the less that can be effectively assimilated. In general, liquid diets empty faster from the stomach than canned foods, and canned foods empty faster than dry.  Thus, if liquid diets are fed too fast or in large volumes, diarrhoea will occur. In veterinary medicine, liquid diets are primarily used in specialized circumstances (e.g., nasoesophageal or jejunostomy tube feeding) or with certain GI conditions, such as oesophageal stricture, selected cases of achalasia, or gastric outflow disturbances, to reduce regurgitation or vomiting. Although a variety of nutritional and no nutritional diseases affect the GI tract, the treatment of most GI diseases is enhanced by appropriate diet selection. Numerous therapeutic diets are available for the treatment of GI disease, including highly digestible diets, novel antigen or hypoallergenic diets, hydrolysed (protein) diets, and diets with added concentrations of dietary fibre. Each of these diets may be used for the treatment of various GI disturbances. However, recognizing and understanding the differences in the nutrient composition of these diets is necessary to select the most appropriate diet. Finally, in special circumstances, homemade diets may be required for the successful dietary treatment of severe GI disease, when the available commercial products are either unacceptable or ineffective. The effects of protein on the GI tract are subtle and often less clinically obvious than that of fat or CHO, but they are crucially important to disease treatment because the amino acid glutamine is the primary source of respiratory fuel for enterocytes. The presence of a protein meal in the GI tract increases lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, is a potent stimulus for secretion of GI hormones, including gastrin and pancreatic hormones, and increases gastric emptying and intestinal transit Despite this, protein malassimilation is not a major stimulus for diarrhoea (i.e., dogs with protein-losing enteropathies (PLE) often have normal stools, unless they have concurrent fat or CHO malabsorption). However, intact protein reaching the distal small intestine and colon will increase bacterial ammonia production, alter bacterial numbers and species, and may contribute to colitis or colonic hypersensitivity. Furthermore, protein antigens in food are responsible for the development of most food hypersensitivity reactions in dogs and cats. Food allergies are caused by one or multiple food proteins, which make potent antigens when they are exposed to GI mucosa. Animals with food allergies may have an immediate hypersensitivity reaction to the protein, or may have a delayed (i.e., type IV) response, thus the signs may be quite variable. Nevertheless, a combination of intestinal and/or dermatologic signs, including vomiting, diarrhoea, weight loss, pruritus, hair loss, or otitis externa, often develop in animals with food sensitivity.  In animals with GI diseases causing severe mucosal disruption (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease lymphoma), intact proteins may cross the mucosa-exposing the immune cells of the lamina proprietor to these antigens, and potentially predisposing to the development of hypersensitivity to that protein. For that reason, feeding a “sacrificial” diet during the initial stages of therapy of severe GI disease until the inflammation is controlled is sometimes recommended. Once the inflammatory disease is suppressed with steroid or other immune suppressive drugs, a new highly digestible or novel antigen diet is introduced and fed as long-term therapy. One alternative to the sacrificial diet is to feed a hydrolysed diet (egg, a highly digestible, low fat diet that contains no intact proteins, only peptides which in theory are not large enough to serve as antigens). However, there are no data available to support or refute this claim. Although feeding hydrolysed diets may not completely eliminate the possibility of immune stimulation, anecdotal evidence suggests that feeding these diets may be beneficial for some animals with severe small intestinal disease or food sensitivity.

Short Communication Pages: 5 - 6

Target approach in diabetes prophylaxis

E K Mukhamejanov

 

 

Abstract

The violation of glucose transport to the muscle cell plays the key role in the mechanism of development of insulin resistance. The phosphorylation of glucose into glucose-6-phosphate with the participation of the hexokinase enzyme is the first step of intake of glucose by muscle. Therefore, endocrinologists believe that insulin should activate hexokinase, but this is not confirmed by biochemical science. However, there is evidence data that the activity of hexokinase is under the control of the ATP/ADP coefficient, i.e. the intake of glucose is inhibited by reducing the cells energy requirement and increasing the ATP/ADP ratio. Therefore, it can be suggested that the activation of energy-dependent processes should contribute to an increase in the rate of glucose entry into the cell and lead to a decrease of insulin resistance. The ATP/ADP coefficient decreases with physical activity, with activation of protein synthesis at the translation stage (leucine) and with elevation of heat production (thyroxine), at which the blood glucose level decreases. Insulin itself promotes the initiation of the peptide chain, i.e. activation of protein synthesis at the stage of translation (kinase activation of translation). Factors contributing to polysomic disaggregation (hyperkinesia, cortisol, and inflammatory cytokines) lead to a reduction in the expenditure of glucose energy on the anabolic process and promote the development of hyperglycaemia. Therefore, the targeted approach in the prevention of diabetes is to increase the efficiency of activities of energy-dependent processes, in particular, to improve the process of protein synthesis. The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and ongoing DPP Outcomes Study (DPPOS) are major studies that changed the way people approach type 2 diabetes prevention worldwide. The DPP showed that people who are at high risk for type 2 diabetes can prevent or delay the disease by losing a modest amount of weight through lifestyle changes (dietary changes and increased physical activity). Taking metformin, a safe and effective generic medicine to treat diabetes, was also found to prevent the disease, though to a lesser degree. The DPPOS has continued to follow most DPP participants since 2002. To date, the DPPOS has shown that participants who took part in the DPP Lifestyle Change Program or are taking metformin continue to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes for at least 15 years. The DPPOS has also shown that the DPP Lifestyle Change Program is cost effective (costs are justified by the benefits of diabetes prevention, improved health, and fewer health care costs) and metformin is cost-saving (leads to a small savings in health care costs) after 10-years. DPPOS researchers are also continuing to follow other health problems in participants such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases (heart and blood vessel disease), nerve damage, kidney disease, and eye disease. As participants age, researchers are following age-related health problems such as trouble with physical function and difficulties with thinking or memory. The NIDDK funded the landmark Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) to see if people with type 1 diabetes who kept their blood glucose levels as close to normal as safely possible with intensive diabetes treatment (three or more shots of insulin per day or an insulin pump with self-monitoring of blood glucose at least four times per day) could slow the development of eye, kidney, and nerve disease, compared with people who used the conventional treatment at the time of the study (one or two shots of insulin per day with daily self-monitoring of urine or blood glucose). The DCCT ended after 10 years in 1993—a year earlier than planned—when the study proved that participants who kept their blood glucose levels close to normal greatly lowered their chances of having eye, kidney, and nerve disease. A follow-up study to the DCCT, the ongoing Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) study, has continued to follow DCCT participants since 1994. EDIC has shown that there are long-term benefits of early and intensive blood glucose control on the future development of diabetes-related complications such as heart, eye, kidney, and nerve disease, and that early and intensive blood glucose control also lengthens life. EDIC has also shown that scheduling eye exams based on personal risk for retinopathy, rather than once a year, results in fewer eye exams, lower costs, and quicker diagnosis and treatment of advanced diabetic eye disease. Findings from DCCT/EDIC have changed the way diabetes is treated worldwide. As a result of DCCT/EDIC and other studies, early and intensive blood glucose control is now the standard treatment for people with type 1 and some people with type 2 diabetes, and it helps people with diabetes live longer and healthier lives. The Special Statutory Funding Program for Type 1 Diabetes Research, or Special Diabetes Program, is a special appropriation that supports research on the prevention and cure of type 1 diabetes and its complications. Since 1998, the Special Diabetes Program has enabled the creation of unique, innovative, and collaborative research consortia and clinical trials networks. These have made significant research progress as noted in program reports and also generated numerous research resources for use by the broad scientific community. The NIDDK administers the Special Diabetes Program on behalf of the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services, in collaboration with multiple NIH Institutes and Centres and the CDC, and with input from the Diabetes Mellitus Interagency Coordinating Committee. Learn more about the Program’s background. The Special Diabetes Program supplements type 1 diabetes research supported by the NIDDK and NIH’s regular appropriation. Therefore, the links on this site do not represent the entirety of type 1 diabetes research supported by the NIDDK and the NIH, but rather focus only on research supported by the Special Diabetes Program. Learn more about NIDDK diabetes research.

Short Communication Pages: 7 - 8

Food tablet manufacturing strategies: Research data on effervescent food supplements

Ozlem Tokusoglu

 

 

Abstract

Recently, the potential efficacy of the bioactive phenolic from natural sources has been the focus of great attention owing to their health benefits to human health for reduced risk of coronary heart problems and selected cancers. Food tablets as dietary supplements, and fortificated foods, food by-product based food powders may be great value-added products for getting healthy bioactive components. Nutraceutical food tablets has been prepared by direct compression method through selected tablet machines and has been manufactured according to established prescription methods. The functional constituents of the foods, some preferable functional foods or some functional plant/fruits/ vegetables/spice foods has been standardized as the nutraceutical product and generate under good manufacturing practices (GMPs). Primarily, a nutraceutical or selected food must be detected for “non-toxic food constituent strategy'' by advanced toxicity analyses , then it must be detected and analysed in terms of health benefits including disease treatment and/or prevention. Uniquely containing activated phenolic antioxidants that have been naturally extracted to be highly potent and easily absorbed by your body in food tablets. Activated phenolic antioxidants are derived from the healthiest of plants, fruit, vegetable and spices. A wide range of free radicals are neutralized by absorption of antioxidant phenolic through effervescent; thence body cells are protected from damage and inflammation. Effervescence tablet has been proved its utility as an oral delivery system in the pharmaceutical and dietary industries for decades. In effervescent nutraceutical technology; a balanced ratio of acids and carbonates are used for forming a buffer and it has optimal compatibility with the stomach. Gas bubbles occur from the liquid after chemical reaction by adding water; alkali metal bicarbonates and acids (majorly citric or tartaric acids) are utilized to produce effervescence. In effervescent system, when organic acid and bicarbonate get together in the water, CO2 is released; the solving process is performed in 17-20 ºC water. The foam of them helps to kill the local bacteria. Food tablet is described as unit dose, temper evident, solid preparations including one or more active ingredients or whole food powder. Patient and/or consumer demand, routes of drug delivery, oral utilization capacity, the flexible design of dosage forms as technical manufacturing parameters has been considered; also the bulk density (g/ml), the tapped density (g/ml) as pre-compression parameters have been confirmed while thickness (mm), hardness (kg/cm2), % weight variation, % friability, % in- vitro drug release as post-compression parameters have been carried out as physiochemical properties. Among the alkali sources, sodium carbonate is preferred due to its low cost, high solubility and intensity of reaction than potassium carbonate and bicarbonate. Poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) is used as binder in effervescent; its form is as dry powder or wet forms of aqueous or hydro alcoholic solutions Water-soluble lubricants, colours, flavourings and sweeteners are also added as other ingredients. Mannitol and PEG 6000 are other utilized effective binders. At production stage in tablet machine, relative humidity should be low (≤25%) and ambient temperature should be at room temperature (24±1°C). Tablet forming quality parameters (weight, hardness, pH, solution time and friability) are inspected. Probiotics are living microorganisms that confer benefits on the recipient health when administered in appropriate amounts. To define the composition of effervescent probiotics in tablet form, an assessment of the component`s effects on the viability of the microorganisms are performed. Prebiotics are food ingredients that induce the growth or activity of beneficial microorganisms (e.g. bacteria and fungi). Approximately 47% of chicory root fibre contain the prebiotic fibre inulin; inulin nourishes the gut bacteria, improves digestion and helps relieve constipation. Tablets including prebiotics have metabolic properties and improves the intestinal ecosystem and colon cells, stimulating the peristalsis, improves lipids and reducing the cholesterol and triglyceride serum levels and also facilitates the mineral salt absorption. The powder blend has been thoroughly mixed with talc and magnesium stearate and compressed into a 300-400 mg tablet using single rotatory punching machine based on tablet processing strategy. Among the trial /serial tablet formulations; me sir effervescent tablet could be more efficacious owing to majorly cinnamaldehyde (as v/v) whereas black mulberry effervescent tablet could be more beneficial due to the presence of moracin and aligning phenolic anticarcinogenics and also ''mandarin peel effervescent tablet could be salutary because of its naringenin and hesperidin flavanone phenolic bioactive. Recently, the potential efficacy of the bioactive phenolic from natural sources has been the focus of great attention owing to their health benefits to human health for reduced risk of coronary heart problems and selected cancers. Food tablets as dietary supplements, and/or fortificated foods, food by-product based food powders may be great value-added products for getting healthy bioactive components. Nutraceutical food tablets has been prepared by direct compression method through selected tablet machines and has been manufactured according to established prescription methods. The functional constituents of the foods or some preferable functional foods must be standardized as the nutraceutical product and generate under good manufacturing practices (GMPs). Primarily, a nutraceutical or selected food must be detected for???non-toxic food constituent strategy'' by advanced toxicity analyses, then it must be detected and analysed in terms of health benefits including disease 

treatment and/or prevention. Food tablet is described as unit dose, temper evident, solid preparations including one or more active ingredients or whole food powder. Patient and/or consumer demand, routes of drug delivery, oral utilization capacity, the flexible design of dosage forms as technical manufacturing parameters has been considered; also the bulk density (g/ml), the tapped density (g/ml) as pre-compression parameters have been confirmed while thickness (mm), hardness kg/cm2), % weight variation, % friability, % in- vitro drug release as post-compression (parameters have been carried out as physiochemical properties. The powder blend has been thoroughly mixed with talc and magnesium stearate and compressed into a 300-400 mg tablet using single rotatory punching machine based on tablet processing strategy. Among the trial /serial tablet formulations; ''miser effervescent tablet'' could be more efficacious owing to majorly cinnamaldehyde (as v/v) whereas ''black mulberry effervescent tablet'' could be more beneficial due to the presence of moracin and aligning phenolic anticarcinogenics and also ''mandarin peel effervescent tablet'' could be salutary because of its naringenin and hesperidin flavanone phenolic bioactive. In this keynote workshop presentation content, the innovative and conventional food tablet processing strategies has been given with discussed chemical characterization, functional properties, their unique bioactive features, ant oxidative, ant carcinogenic reports of above- mentioned developed tablets.

 

Short Communication Pages: 9 - 11

Nutraceutical and medicinal foods

Prakash Kondekar

 

 

Abstract

Treatment and/or prevention. Food tablet is described as unit dose, temper evident, solid preparations including one or more active ingredients or whole food powder. Patient and/or consumer demand, routes of drug delivery, oral utilization capacity, the flexible design of dosage forms as technical manufacturing parameters has been considered; also the bulk density (g/ml), the tapped density (g/ml) as pre-compression parameters have been confirmed while thickness (mm), hardness kg/cm2), % weight variation, % friability, % in- vitro drug release as post-compression (parameters have been carried out as physiochemical properties. The powder blend has been thoroughly mixed with talc and magnesium stearate and compressed into a 300-400 mg tablet using single rotatory punching machine based on tablet processing strategy. Among the trial /serial tablet formulations; ''miser effervescent tablet'' could be more efficacious owing to majorly cinnamaldehyde (as v/v) whereas ''black mulberry effervescent tablet'' could be more beneficial due to the presence of moracin and aligning phenolic anticarcinogenics and also ''mandarin peel effervescent tablet'' could be salutary because of its naringenin and hesperidin flavanone phenolic bioactive. In this keynote workshop presentation content, the innovative and conventional food tablet processing strategies has been given with discussed chemical characterization, functional properties, their unique bioactive features, ant oxidative, ant carcinogenic reports of above- mentioned developed tablets. Eating habits have a great impact on humans’ health, environment, industry, and economy. In recent years, new topics in food research, such as nutraceuticals, functional foods, and food supplements, have emerged to mitigate health problems, especially those pertaining to metabolism and the gastrointestinal tract. Although the intimate mechanisms by which nutraceuticals, functional foods, and food supplements may improve the health of consumers are widely unknown, the potential of such products in supporting health and the development of efficient alternative therapies for numerous severe diseases is of great significance and supported by numerous studies and empirical observations. The purpose of this manuscript is to introduce, define, and briefly discuss types of nutraceuticals, functional foods, food supplements, and medicinal foods, highlighting their potential impact on consumers’ health. The recent era is witnessing evaluation of medicinal and nutritional value of fruits and fruit juices for the management and prevention of brain diseases like headache stress, anxiety, hypertension, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases by the scientists and researchers worldwide. Fruits possess various chemicals such as antioxidants and polyphenols, which reduce and balance the effect of hormone in brain responsible for brain disease. Natural remedy is cheap, easily available, nontoxic, and easy to prepare and provides good mental health as compared to other remedies. The main objective of this review is to acknowledge medicinal benefits of fruits for the cognition and management of brain disease. Nutraceutical products can be considered non-specific biological therapies used to promote general well-being, control symptoms, and prevent malignant processes. The term “nutraceutical” combines the two words of “nutrient,” which is a nourishing food component, and “pharmaceutical,” which is a medical drug. The name was coined in 1989 by Stephen DE Felice, founder and chairman of the Foundation for Innovation in Medicine, which is an American organization located in Cranford, New Jersey. The philosophy behind nutraceuticals is to focus on prevention, according to the saying by a Greek physician Hippocrates (known as the father of medicine) who said “let food be your medicine”. Their role in human nutrition is one of the most important areas of investigation, with wide-raging implications for consumers, healthcare providers, regulators, food producers, and distributors. Breakthroughs in technologies are leading the way in the development and recognition of value-added commodities and processed foods, genetically engineered foods, ingredients of significant health value, medical foods, foods for special dietary use, dietary supplements, phytochemicals, herbal products and nutraceuticals, and their linkage to health and disease. This timely realization connects in part with the fact that one in three Americans are using some form of alternative and complementary/adjunct therapy. This trend has brought a tremendous increase in the number of products with perceived or anecdotal evidence of potential health and medical benefits and has led to major concerns about consumer safety and fraudulent claims. Nevertheless, the dramatic shift in consumer readiness, combined with increasing eagerness to save health care costs, has become an important issue for policy makers, regulatory bodies, scientific and medical communities, and companies, to make sure that appropriate measures are taken for documenting science-based, product-specific health claims. This commentary highlights key issues of product safety, efficacy, health claims, and regulatory barriers that must be addressed objectively as a new industry evolves from this powerful consumer trend. In recent years, a new diet health paradigm is evolving which places more emphasis on the positive aspects of diet. The new lifestyle adopted by people today has changed the basic food habits of the latter. Consumption of the junk food has increased manifold leading to a number of diseases caused due to improper nutrition. Obesity is now recognized as a global issue. Heart disease continues to be a primary cause of death in most of the developing countries worldwide, followed by cancer, osteoporosis, arthritis and many others. Consumers being frustrated with the expensive, high-tech, disease-treatment approach in the modern medicines are seeking complementary or alternative beneficial products and the red tape of managed care makes nutraceuticals particularly appealing. “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food”, quoted by Hippocrates about 2,500 years ago is certainly the tenet of today. Nutraceuticals are the emerging class of natural products that makes the line between food and drugs to fade (Adalja and Schilling ). Although the use of nutraceuticals by people has a long history, only recently scientifically supported nutritional and medical evidence has allowed nutraceuticals to emerge as being potentially effective (Dillard and German ). The nutraceuticals of both plant and animal origin holds exciting opportunities for the food industries to create novel food products in future. Nutritional studies are now focusing on the examination of foods for their protective and disease preventing potential (Nicola et al. ), instead of negative attributes such as micro-organism count, adulterants, fatty acids and inorganic pollutant concentration (Kaur and Kapoor 2001). The aim of this review is to focus on the general concept and the health-promoting effects of several nutraceuticals that have the potential of being incorporated into foods.

 

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