Journal of Pollution

ISSN: 2684-4958

Open Access

Volume 4, Issue 1 (2021)

Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

Food processing technologies on food alkaloids and food allergenic: Bioactive and toxicological aspects

Ozlem Tokusoglu


Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain biologically important amine structures and include some related compounds in plants and animal foods. Alkaloids show greatly diverse matrix and origins as well as pharmacological and/or nutraceutical action that often demonstrate a marked physiological action. The only thing that unites all these natural compounds under the term ‘alkaloids’ (alkali-like) is the nitrogen atom that is present in all of them. They are known to be adrenergic, antibiotics, poisons, stimulants, diuretics, astringents, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensives, anti-mydriasis, analgesics, anti-gout, expectorant, emetic, anti-spasmodic and many others. Food alkaloids can be take part in chemistry, food industrial applications, food supplement and medical drug fortifier. Chemical alkaloid taxonomy in plants and animal foods, originating from protein and amino acids like this xanthine alkaloids, phenolic based alkaloids, originating from plant cell cultures, pseudoalkaloids, ergot alkaloids and tropane alkaloids in plants and cereals, glycoalkaloids in potatoes, their properties, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical effects. It has been carried out methyl xanthine alkaloids including caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in most consumed non-alcoholic beverages such as tea, coffee, and cocoa majorly and chocolate and herbal teas as less. Phenolic alkaloids containing piper dine alkaloid from black pepper with pyridine structure and sanguinary, Marcaine alkaloids from pomegranate fruits with isoquinoline based structure are also important compounds. Alkaloids are usually derivatives of amino acids, many have a bitter taste and are found as secondary metabolites in plants (including potatoes glycoalkaloids as sol nine, clonidine and their derivatives and tomato glycoalkaloids as Tomatina), animals (such as shellfish neurotoxic alkaloids and marine alkaloids; sax toxin and its analogy), and fungi alkaloids. Many plant and marine based alkaloids are poisonous at dose over, but some are used medicinally as analgesics (pain relievers) or aesthetic, particular morphine and codeine; some as vinblastine are used to treating certain cancer types. Taxol is an anti-cancer (antineoplastic or cytotoxic) chemotherapy drug and Taxol is classified as a plant alkaloid, a tisane and an ant microtubule agent. As others, phenethylamine alkaloid ephedrine is also used as stimulant, decongestant and appetite suppressant in diet processed foods and nutraceuticals. A specific alkaloids in foods can alter after food processing. In this point; toxicity, carcinogenic, toxigenic structure and cancer formation should be dealed. Food sensitivity is an adverse reaction to a food which other people can safely eat, and includes food allergies, food intolerances, microbial toxicities, and chemical sensitivities, whereas food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by body’s immune system. Foodborne allergic reactions can sometimes cause serious illness and death. Food allergy is a reaction of the body’s immune system to a certain food or beverage. In this context, food allergy is a very specific reaction involving the immune system of the body. At this point, distinguishing food allergy from other food sensitivities is the most important. Whereas food allergies are rare, food intolerances, which are the other classification of food sensitivities, are more prevalent. Several specific foods are responsible for the majority of food allergies, even though any food can stimulate an immune response in allergic individuals. It is known that peanuts are the leading cause of severe allergic reactions, followed by shellfish, fish, tree nuts, and eggs. Peanuts, tree nuts including almonds, Brazil nuts, cashews, hazelnuts (filberts), macadamia nuts, pecans, pine nuts (pangolins), pistachio nuts, walnuts, sesame seeds, milk, eggs, fish including shellfish and crustaceans, soy, gluten, fava beans, garlic and onion, mustard are some of the most known allergic foods. HHP processing improved the reducing of allergenic structure and allergen city of some foods. Recently, limited studies have been performed on HHP effects on the structure of known allergens and the elimination of allergen compounds in foods. Further studies are needed for some allergenic proteins in various food matrices. The characterization and stability evaluation of food and food constituents (chemical active ingredient/microorganism) for which nutrition or health claims want to be requested are essential for the success of an application to EFSA. This work reviews the requirements that must be fulfilled for a full characterization of the active substance, comprising origin, elaboration, or extraction method, and chemical/microbiological composition, using validated analytical methods. The review focuses not only on establishing the specifications of the final active ingredient or food but also on ensuring homogeneity between batches. In addition, the article discusses the methodologies and conditions of the stability studies that need to be performed on food and food constituents to verify that the relevant compounds--chemical and microbiological active ingredients--will get to the consumer in the intended state and concentration to accomplish the claimed health effect over shelf life. The growing presence of products on the market with added value in terms of health makes essential their regulation and harmonization in critical aspects such as safety. The toxicology applied to the bioactive compounds should demonstrate the absence of toxic effects at doses advised for consumption, as well as evaluate the potential toxic effects in the assumption that the products are used in quantities superior to those recommended. The specific strategy should be defined case by case; therefore, prior to any toxicological development, it is essential to study all the information regarding the bioactive compounds (BACs) characterization, nutriedynamics and nutrikinetics, that is available. In this guideline, a general strategy to be applied in the development of BACs is proposed. It includes a first in vitro phase to discard genotoxicity and endocrine effects and a second in vivo phase with different possibilities regarding the duration and the extension of the studies. It is known that manufacturers quite often put into foodstuff marking or advertisement the information about its beneficial action into the consumers health, i.e. about its functional qualities. However in Russian Federation the rules are regulated using of term "functional foods" doesn't established. In the review of legislation acts which are regulated of using claims in the foodstuff marking or advertisement in the different countries have been shown that claims concerning of energy and nutritional values of foods (beneficial nutrition claims) should be used in compliance with established rules without additional investigations. Food health claims referring to the reduction of disease risk and (or) functional foods claims for children must maintain in compliance with established procedure. Only claims that have scientific evidence about its beneficial for health could be recommended for approval. Thereupon insistent necessity in development, discussion and approval regulation in the field of using Claims concerning the functional qualities of foods (described rules of using beneficial nutrition claims and claims referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children's development and growth) in Russian Federation and United Customs Union are obvious.


Short Communication Pages: 3 - 4

Biotechnology of functional natural milk products with biologically active additives from marine algae

Wojciech Piekoszews


Considering the unfavourable ecological situation in the world and the acute deficiencies of macro-and micronutrients in both adults and children, leading to various diseases and as a result, reducing life expectancy, the development of functional products and their introduction into (large scale) production is currently relevant. Dairy products (milk, ice cream) are quite promising in this regard, as they are not only widely consumed by all sections of the population, but are also a source of riboflavin, retinol and also contain other vitamins and beneficial, biologically active substances: Enzymes, hormones, immune biological compounds and pigments (lacto Flavin). The aim of the work was the development of dairy products with the addition of polylobate, carrageenan and Fukolam from the Pacific shelf. The studied objects were, dairy drinks with the addition of biologically active substances, pasteurized milk, carrageenan, Fukolam C and polylobate a polysaccharide obtained by the esterification of pectin’s from lime). The production technology of dairy drinks with polysaccharides of seaweed and terrestrial plant-based pectin’s differed from the standard scheme of milk production by adding additives after the pasteurization stage, before cooling. The quality assessment of the developed dairy drink with the addition of functional ingredients from seaweed was carried out according to organoleptic, physio-chemical and safety indicators in accordance with the code of alimentation. Thus, a composition was developed for three new dairy drinks with an optimum ratio of components for organoleptic and health effects; new technologies for the production of milk drinks, enriched with seaweed polysaccharides and terrestrial plant-based pectin’s have been described. The quality and safety of dairy products developed were studied. In general, milk shall not contain any additives. Additives or preservatives are added to the food for technological necessity, including enhancement of shelf-life. Many food additives are classified as GRAS [meaning ‘Generally Regarded as Safe’ additives. The GRAS additives as supposed to be causing no harm for longer periods.] Milk only may be subjected to pasteurization, boiling, sterilization or Ultra High Temperature (UTH) sterilization or Chilling for its stability because milk is generally prescribed for children, patients, and old persons. Dairy-based drinks, flavoured and/or fermented (e.g. chocolate, milk, cocoa, eggnog) UHT sterilized milk shelf life more than three months may contain Emulsifier/stabilizer in specified quantity as included under Appendix A of the Food Safety and Standards (Food …..Additives) Regulations, 2011.Further, Cheese/Sliced cheese, Processed cheese, Processed cheese spread, all types of yogurts and Evaporated milk may contain stabilizer/emulsifier, Thickener, and modifying agent, modified starch, flavour, colour, acidity regulator, surface treatment, anti-caking agent, anti-oxidants etc. Specific additives in specified amount may be used as under Food Safety & Standards Regulations, 2011 for the items Sweetened condensed milk, Butter, Milk fat/Butter oil & Anhydrous milk fat / Anhydrous butter oil, Milk power and Cream powder, Ice Cream, Dried ice cream mix, Frozen desserts (commonly confused by dishonest traders as Ice cream), Milk ice, Milk lollies, Ice candy, casein products, whey powder, / Paneer, Canned (the cans shall be internally lacquered with sulphur dioxide resistant lacquer), dry mixes of Ghee. However, it is to conclude that food without additives and preservatives is always better. Hence, the restrictions have been imposed by the regulatory authority on the commodity-wise and the quantity-wise use of additives, indispensable nowadays for the food industry. The use of additives in dairy products varies in different continental regions. Though the use of additives is regulated under Codex Aliment Arius, country-specific provisions must always be considered. In most markets, the use of additives in general is not usual in dairy products such as plain milk, whey, cream, and yogurt, whereas it becomes more frequent if other ingredients such as fruits, nuts, or vegetables are added or if the dairy products are processed as technological need increases. Also the use of additives in fermented milks and cheeses is more common, though still restricted. In accordance with the specific provisions laid down in the European Union and the United States, additives such as colours and sweeteners as well as stabilizers such as sodium and calcium phosphates, ascorbic acid and carrageenan, and calcium chloride are commonly used for dairy products except butter and unflavoured fermented milk products, for which the use of additives is not permitted or is restricted. The use of preservatives, antimycotics, and antioxidants in dairy products is also subject to restriction and must be verified in accordance with national provisions for the products concerned. Important in any case is that the local or national legislation be verified before product launches in new markets. Emulsifiers refer to the food additives that have been applied in the foods to greatly reduce the interfacial tension between the oil (hydrophobic substances) and water (hydrotropic substance) and thus to form stabilized emulsion consisting of two substances that cannot dissolve each other. The frequently-used emulsifiers in the dairy products are mono-glyceride of fatty acid monoglyceride, glycerol fatty acid monoglyceride, tripolyglycerol monostearates, propylene glycol alginate, succinylated monoglycerides, sodium sterols lactate, calcium lactate stearate, spans, and sucrose fatty acid ester. Emulsifier plays an important role in improving emulsion stability and homogeneity, appearance stability, and taste of the liquid milk. Monoglyceride is the most widely used water-in-oil emulsifier, which also can be used as oil-in-water due to its strong emulsibility. 

Short Communication Pages: 5 - 6

Food security, nutrition and well-being: A South African perspective

Thierry Regnier


Food insecurity, sustainable agriculture and food system to reduce hunger and malnutrition is one of the goal of the FAO. It is crucial to make sure that the food we eat is not contaminated with potentially dangerous bacteria, parasites, viruses, toxins and chemicals. The focus of the key note is to give an overview of the South African landscape in term of food safety and security with an inside on the current challenges. The importance of the traditional crops and food products is also highlighted. Finally, the key role of applying science to solving issues related to sustainable food production and safety, while exploiting the health-promoting properties of foods to improve nutrition. Food safety refers to routines in the preparation, handling and storage of food meant to prevent foodborne illness and injury. From farm to factory to fork, food products may encounter any number of health hazards during their journey through the supply chain. Safe food handling practices and procedures are thus implemented at every stage of the food production life cycle in order to curb these risks and prevent harm to consumers.

As a scientific discipline, food safety draws from a wide range of academic fields, including chemistry, microbiology and engineering. These diverse schools of thought converge to ensure that food processing safety is carried out wherever food products are sourced, manufactured, prepared, stored, or sold. In this sense, food safety is a systemic approach to hygiene and accountability that concerns every aspect of the global food industry. The following article defines food safety in manufacturing and explains the importance of food safety for the global food chain. Following a brief overview of the different regulatory bodies tasked with evaluating food safety around the world, the article outlines the key principles of effective food safety regulation, the history of food safety and the consequences of unsafe food handling practices and procedures for companies and consumers. Food products are among the most-traded commodities in the world. As markets become increasingly globalised with each passing year, and as the world’s population continues to grow, the global food supply chain will only continue to increase in scale and complexity. Precisely because of these megatrends influencing the mass


Production and distribution of food, food safety compliance has never been more important. Every country has different regulatory bodies that preside over the definition and enforcement of domestic food safety standards. In order to sell or manufacture food products in any given country, domestic and international businesses alike are subject to the food safety legislation and enforcement measures of that nation. In the European Union, for example, food safety legislation is detailed in. In the United States, the Systemic, risk-based approach to preventing the biological, chemical and in production, packaging and distribution environments. The HACCP concept is designed to counter health hazards by identifying potential food safety problems before they happen, rather than inspect food products for hazards after the fact. The HACCP concept entails controlling for contaminants at a number of key junctures in the food production process and strict adherence to hygiene practices throughout. There are also several privately-owned international organisations that provide comprehensive guidelines for auditing food manufacturers on the basis of food safety and hygiene. These international standards facilitate the global food trade by helping food industry players from different countries to ensure that food quality and safety standards are met in a way that transcends borders. In addition to complying with the food safety laws of the countries in which they are active, global market leaders in the food industry often pursue certification with a number of private food regulators. They may furthermore demand that the upstream and downstream suppliers they work with provide proof of the same certifications. Is part of the Global Food Safety Initiative and is an international standard for performing audits of food manufacturing processes. Their compliance audits concern both the factory floor and administrative duties, with regulations on topics ranging from the installation of food defence and inspection equipment to thorough bookkeeping.  (Formerly BRC) are a set of international consumer protection certifications that provide safety criteria for global food retailers, food manufacturers, packaging manufacturers and food service organisations. Their certification for food manufacturers includes an assessment of the equipment used to detect and remove physical contaminants. Provides detailed safety programs tailored to the specific concerns of different food industry players. The various SQF codes are segmented to address the unique conditions of each stage of the food production life cycle, from agriculture to packaging, from manufacturing to retail. Each SQF program is internationally recognised. Each of these private food safety organisations have built their certification programs around an international norm for food safety management systems: While the international regulatory bodies listed above provide guidance, certification and auditing services for global food manufacturers, they are not responsible for the active enforcement of food safety laws. Every nation defines and establishes its own laws and enforcement practices for food safety regulation and these regulations may vary from country to country, and domestically from region to region. Bringing a food product to a foreign market requires compliance with the food safety and consumer protection laws of that nation and its regional governmental authorities. Generally speaking, international food safety standards are designed to facilitate compliance with food safety laws in major markets, simplifying the process of receiving approval from foreign governmental regulators. Foodborne illness has threatened human health since the dawn of time. In fact, many food preparation methods we still use today, such as cooking, canning, smoking and fermentation, can be understood as primitive food safety measures, developed as a means of keeping people from getting sick. Today, we benefit from centuries of scientific and technological progress that have made an abundance of safe food and drink products something that many of us take for granted. But the concept of food safety as we know it today, and the rigor with which it is enforced, is a relatively new development in human history that is intimately tied to changes in the way we live and eat. In 1905, American author Upton Sinclair published his novel The Jungle, which featured horrific depictions of Chicago’s meatpacking industry. The ensuing public outrage led the U.S. government to pass the Meat Inspection Act the following year, establishing the first sanitary standards for slaughtering and butchering. This law marked the first time that food processing facilities were subject to regular audits and inspections by governmental authorities and some of the very first laws for food safety in manufacturing. Across Europe and North America, the industrial revolution ushered in the establishment of many regulatory bodies and foundational laws concerning food safety and inspection. As food production became increasingly mechanised and profit incentives climbed, laws were passed to prevent the intentional sale of food products that were misbranded, contaminated, or otherwise tampered with. It was during this era that ingredients and additives became subject to regulation.

Short Communication Pages: 7 - 8

Bioavailability of nutrients

Bulbin Jose


The aim of the study is to evaluate the in vivo antimicrobial effect of some natural products, Bioavailability is the amount of nutrient in a foodstuff that the body can utilize, to perform various physiologic functions. It varies according to age and physiologic conditions of individuals. The bioavailability of a nutrient depends on several factors such as factors contained in the food itself, factors of human physiology, factors specific to individual’s health status, and factors related to the food processing. Bioavailability is influenced by both dietary and host-related factors. Several dietary factors affect the nutrient bioavailability of plant foods when they are consumed, such as the chemical form of the nutrient in the food and the nature of the food matrix, interactions occurring between nutrients and other organic components within the plant food and pre-treatment of the food during processing and/or preparation. Bioavailability of nutrients are very important for fixing nutrient requirements and using it in food labelling purposes. Bioavailability influences a nutrient's beneficial effects at physiologic levels of intake and affects the nature and severity of toxicity due to excessive intakes. Bioavailability is an important issue for many nutritional concerns especially to determine the nutritional status of an individual. As the dietary supplements industry is registering steady and rapid growth, consumers are demanding quality supplements. Consumer perception of the quality of oral solid dosage forms is changing. Good quality is associated with the ability to disintegrate and dissolve. Performance characteristics of oral solid dosage forms in public standards will address the in vitro dissolution requirements, which will be presented as they relate to multivitamin-mineral combination products. The commonly accepted definition of bioavailability is the proportion of the nutrient that is digested, absorbed and metabolized through normal pathways. Consequently, it is not enough to know how much of a nutrient is present in a dietary supplement; the more important issue is how much of that present is bioavailable. A common belief regarding bioavailability of dietary supplements is that they have to be in solution to be absorbed in the body. However, the veracity of this axiom with regard to commercially available supplements was recently called into question.  studies on the use of calcium salts as fillers for tablets and capsules and observed that in addition to not dissolving in many cases the calcium salt tablets took as long as 4–6 h even to disintegrate. Moreover, was able to extend these observations beyond calcium supplements to include several single vitamin as well as multivitamin and mineral preparations. An immediate consequence of these findings, aside from their impact on consumer confidence, was initiation by the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP)3 Committee of Revision of a process to develop public standards for the multivitamin-mineral combination products marketed as dietary supplements. This article will be an overview of the steps taken by USP to develop these standards. Although the formulation, development and manufacturing technology involved in the preparation of dietary supplements are similar to those in the manufacture of drug products, significant differences can be found between these products that impact on the evaluation of their bioavailability as defined above. The absence of dose response and the attendant no criticality of the dosing intervals for dietary supplements is a key distinction that should be reflected in the evaluative standards. Thus, although content uniformity requirement for drug products is an acknowledgment of the existence of a well-defined dose-response curve and, thus, dosing intervals, such a requirement is not possible for multivitamin-mineral combination products used as nutritional supplements. Alternatively, weight variation requirement could be used to ensure that the article was indeed manufactured under good manufacturing practices. In spite of the lack of clearly defined dose-response curve, a dietary supplement formulated into tablet or capsule is expected to disintegrate inside the stomach within a reasonable time to release the active ingredient or nutrient. This disintegration then will facilitate further dissolution in the biological fluids before gastrointestinal absorption. Because nutritional supplements are formulated and manufactured using the same technology as drugs, in vitro dissolution requirement, as a surrogate for in vivo absorption, is considered appropriate for oral solid dosage forms of multivitamin-mineral products. In a typical multivitamin-mineral combination product, it is neither practical nor necessary to require in vitro demonstration of each and every vitamin and mineral. Consequently, a specific dissolution requirement has been adopted for multivitamin-mineral combination products, in which an index vitamin and an index mineral are identified as markers for dissolution. In an attempt to account for the many different permutations of vitamins and mineral combinations, a hierarchy of index vitamins and index minerals has been developed and specified. Opposed to the dissolution criteria used for water-soluble vitamins, the hierarchy for index minerals is based on their importance in public health. For example, iron was chosen as the number one index mineral because iron deficiency is the most commonly prevalent condition in the United States and because iron is invariably present in nearly all the marketed multivitamin-mineral combination products. Similarly, calcium was chosen as the next index mineral in view of its importance in the prevention of osteoporosis. As with the vitamins, a similar hierarchical approach based on presence in a given preparation is used to determine the index mineral in a given supplement, i.e., iron, then calcium, then zinc, then magnesium. The UPS is in the process of developing in vitro dissolution requirements for botanical dosage forms along the lines of multivitamin-mineral combination products. The challenge is enormous but the USP considers an in vitro dissolution test to be an essential testing requirement to ensure that the dosage form will meet the standard of bioavailability, i.e., the preparation will dissolve in biological fluids in a reasonable time frame, thereby allowing delivery of the bioactive components for absorption and ultimate utilization.

Short Communication Pages: 9 - 9

Current scenario and prospects of Roselle seed as functional food

Ghazala Riaz


Functional food is becoming a part of an average consumer’s diet. The key reason for this is the growing awareness of the consumer towards health and nutritional benefits of food for diseases prevention and health improvement. This, in turn has intensified the interest of the researchers in identifying new cheaper sources especially of plant origin that could serve as functional food. Globally, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) plant is gathering attention due to the inherent therapeutic properties in different parts of the plant that is calyces, leaves and the seeds. Roselle plant is basically grown for its fibber’s and calyces and the latter is used for making herbal tea, beverages, jam, jelly and natural colouring material. Roselle seeds are usually described as a by-product and have little food or industrial uses although they have the potential to be used as functional food or functional food ingredients. The present study focuses on the traditional uses, nutritional composition, anti-nutritional factor, antioxidant activity and the studies validating therapeutic uses of Roselle seed so as to explore their potential uses as a functional food. The electronic database using PubMed, Scopus and using the keywords Hibiscus sabdariffa seed oil and protein, chemical composition of Roselle seed, anti-inflammatory antimicrobial, antioxidant, and toxicity. After scrutinizing the information from the collected literature, it was included in the study. The utility of Roselle seeds has been hardly ever studied as compared to the calyces and despite the seed being the good source of protein, fibre, oil and other health-promoting components like vitamins, minerals, amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids, there is a dearth of information about the Roselle seeds. Hence more studies should be conducted to provide the insight to exploit the Roselle seeds as functional ingredients and validation of their traditional therapeutic uses. Background and Objective: Searching non-traditional sources of edible oil is crucial in Egypt. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is a vital medicinal plant in Egypt, where all its parts are utilized except the seeds that are completely discarded. The aim of the present research was to study the possibility of consuming Roselle seed oil (RSO) as edible oil. Materials and Methods: The composition of RSO from fatty acids, total phenolic, flavonoids and tocochromanols was assessed. In vitro antioxidant and ABTS scavenging activity and the oxidative stability of RSO were evaluated. Oral acute lethal toxicity test of RSO was studied in mice to assess its safety. Two experiments were carried out on rats, in the first experiment two balanced diets were fed to two groups of rats one contained 10% RSO while the other contained the same percentage of sunflower oil as reference oil for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, plasma lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA) and liver and kidney functions were assessed. In the second experiment, dyslipidaemia was induced in rats then rats were fed either 10% RSO or 10% sunflower oil diet. At the end of the second experiment plasma glucoselipid profile, interleukin 6 and MDA were assessed. Data were statistically analysed using one-way analysis of variance ANOVA followed by Duncan’s test. Results: The RSO showed to possess high safety and in vitro antioxidant activity. Major fatty acids were linoleic, oleic and palmitic. Total tocopherols and tocotrienols were 96.2 and 3.48 mg/100 g oil, respectively. Total phenolic and flavonoids contents were 56.31mg GAE and 4.99 mg catching g–1 oil, respectively. Induction period of oxidative stability of RSO was 24.88 h. All assessed parameters of first rats experiment showed insignificant changes when rats fed on RSO diet was compared to those fed on sunflower oil diet. In the second experiment, significant improvements in all parameters were noticed when dyslipidaemia rats were fed on either RSO or sunflower diet with superiority to RSO concerning MDA and interleukin.


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