As the mother earth is confronting on natural emergency on account of an unnatural weather change, a disturbing circumstance emerge for water protection to spare our people in the future. Insufficient rainfall and high temperature records during summer prompts deficiency of fresh water. Lately, various governmental and non-governmental organizations are concentrating on logical examination to conserve fresh water for sometime later. Nanotechnology offers standout way to deal with waste water treatment by novel systems. Because of it’s molecule size which is in the scope of 1-100 nm, the nanoparticles have unique physical, chemical, surface and biological properties when compared to bulk materials. Our studies based on different strategies on treatment methodology utilizing nanomaterials reveals that significant level of nanomaterials are used in squander water treatment. This review is an endeavor to represent the utilization of nanoparticles and its major roles as a capping agent, adsorbate and antimicrobial agent in waste water treatment.