This study is about climate change and the implication it portends for rural resource elements in Katsina State. The research adopted a cross-sectional research design. Data for the study were generated from the administration of a questionnaire on respondents in the study area. The data obtained for the study were presented in tables and statistical diagrams. The findings include; the causes of climate change were noted to be emission of obnoxious gases such as CO2, CO, CH4, O3 and CFCs (17.35%) into the atmosphere, deforestation, land clearing/burning of bush for agricultural and constructional works (19.6%) heating of homes, burning of fossil fuels as well as the smelting of iron (15.8%), gas flaring and other industrial activities (15.6%) and volcanic eruption and other natural phenomenon (14.8%). The rural resources at risk due to climate change include vegetation cover (18.6%), Grasslands (20.7%), livestock and bush meat (17.9%), arable land (18.4%), water resources (15.6%) and fisheries resources (8.9%). The use of modern varieties of farm inputs (58.5%) and soil erosion prevention measures (45.8%) are some of the adaptation measures to climate change. The implication of the threat of climate change to the locals is that their major sources of income and livelihood is threatened, effects of which could escalate migration, crime, theft, hunger, malnutrition or death. As a result of the findings, the study thus recommends diversification of the sources of income, afforestation and reforestation and intensify campaign for the complete reduction in the emissions levels of obnoxious gases.
Rural-resources; Climate-change; Deforestation
Climate change is any significant long-term change in the statistical properties (principally it is mean and spread) of meteorological variables of a region (or the whole Earth) over a significant period, regardless of cause. All the theories of climate change attempt to account for variations in the amount of solar energy received by the earth and the spatial and temporal distribution of the energy over time [1-5]. It has been noted also that sector-wise, the combustion of fossil fuels is the main source of carbon dioxide emission, followed by deforestation and land clearance for agriculture . In the last decades, researches have shown that man can influence climate change through the following: a) alteration in the albedo of the earth surface as a result of deforestation, land clearing, for cultivation or construction and animal grazing; b) Increase in CO2 content of the atmosphere as a result of bush burning and burning of fossil fuels through transportation such as coal, gas, oil etc.; c) Interface and interference with ozone layer by pollution deriving from human activities. Currently, fossil fuel burning worldwide alone account for the release of about 6 million tons of carbon per year while deforestation and land clearance account for another 1 billion tones [6-13]. With respect to the contribution of individual countries to the emission of greenhouse gases, United State Environmental Protection Agency study estimated that in 1989 the United States of America which contains only 5% of the world’s population contributed the highest amount of 21%, followed by the Soviet Union to the European Economic Community [14-16]. The culpable culprits in the depletion of the Ozone layer are CFCs, CH4, N2O, CO2, a major cause of global warming the reduction in the global ozone layer has been noticed over the past two decades [17,18]. The contribution of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) to the depletion of the ozone layer and the subsequent causing of climate change is tremendous. On the other hand deforestation and the clearing of vegetated surfaces for road construction, building of houses, farming and timber logging have aided the phenomenon of climate change. Deforestation is a factor of climate change as it denies the earth's surface carbon exchange with the atmosphere, forest ecosystem loss; accelerates soil erosion, and reducing sink for pollutants .
Nevertheless, there are indicators of climate change. The indicators are provided that one could use to assess the evidence of climate change in a region . These include increasing temperature, increasing evapotranspiration, decreasing rainfall amount in the continental interiors, increasing rainfall in the coastal areas, increasing disruption in climate patterns and increasing frequency and intensity of unusual or extreme weather-related events such as; thunderstorms, lightning, floods, droughts, unpredictable rainfall patterns, sea-level rise, increase desertification and land degradation, drying up of rivers and lakes and constant loss of forest cover and biodiversity.
Generally, it is anticipated that climate variability and change
in Nigeria will have an overwhelming impact on agriculture and land use, ecosystem and biodiversity, human settlements, diseases, livelihood, hydrology and water resources. It is also pointed out that, with respect to agriculture and land use, climate change will likely elicit a significant change in agricultural production both in terms of the quantum of products as well as the location or area of production [21,22]. Identification of a shift from the production of long duration guinea corm to millet, which requires a shorter duration of rainfall . He further revealed in Borno, Yobe, Sokoto and Zamfara state the percentage production of Guinea corn and Millet was 70% and 30% respectively in 1980, as in the year 2000, it has changed to 40% and 60% respectively. This clearly shows that rainfall duration and amount is fluctuating in northern Nigeria.
Climate change has also been found to either dry up rivers or reduce their depth. This was also revealed that for the past 52 years (1950-2001) drastic ecological changes have occurred in the semiarid region of Nigeria [14,23]. While temperature has been on the increase, rainfall has been declining. This climatic change and the pressure on the land from farming, overgrazing, deforestation, and ndiscriminate bush burning have led to desert encroachment and its associated ecological degradation, such as loss of vegetal cover, crop failure, and water scarcity. For instance, Lake Chad, which had a mean depth of 3 m in the early 1960s, is less than 2m as at 2000. The surface area of the lake which was 23,500 km2 in 1963 has shrunk to between 2,300 km2 and 2,500 km2.
Nigerian urban centres have been feeling the impacts of climate change with incessant annual flooding that affect large areas and a large number of people. For example, in 2010, flood in Northern Nigeria affected 2 million people in Jigawa State and another 40,000 people were displaced in Sokoto State where Usmanu Dan Fodio University was forced to close down for weeks as a result of bridge collapse associated with the flood. Similar floods were reported in Lagos where 689 people were to be relocated in Ajegunle as a result of the flood [1,20,24].
Available evidence also shows that climate change in Nigeria has impacted on crop production and livelihood. It has been pointed out that, there is an increase in rainfall amount in the coastal areas since the 1970s, and a constant decline in rainfall amount and duration in the continental interior of the semi-arid region of Nigeria . The increasing temperature and decreasing rainfall in the semi-arid region of Northern Nigeria- Sokoto, Katsina, Kano, Nguru and Maiduguri may have resulted in the increasing evapotranspiration, drought and desertification in the region. offered MBA degrees with an agriculture specialty, it is obvious this type of a degree is applicable to many employment fields. There are a variety of fields available for study, which would allow all potential students to choose a college with a specialty degree of their liking whether it is business or hands-on farm oriented. I have concluded from my study that a Master of Business degree with an agriculture specialty is a viable degree that is relevant to a divers employment field.
Furthermore, between 1901 and 2005 temperature increase of 1.1°C was observed in Nigeria for the 105 years while the rainfall amount dropped by 81 mm. whereas the rainfall amount is generally decreasing in Nigeria, the coastal region of the country has been experiencing slightly increasing rainfall since the early 1970s. The short-dry-season popularly known as August break is currently being experienced more in the month of July as against August. Sea-level rise is observed to have inundated 3400 km2 of Nigeria coastal region while desert encroachment is reducing arable lands from the northern part of the country by 1-10 km a year [21,22]. A shift in crops cultivated by farmers from long to short duration is also noticed. Looking at these established facts, it is therefore feared that the impact of climate change is impacting natural resources and by extension the income of the people. This study thus investigated the climate change problems and the implication for rural resource elements in Katsina State.
Material and Methods
Katsina state is located approximately between latitude 12°15’00” and 12°25’00” N and longitude 7°30’00” and 7°500”00” E of the Greenwich meridian (Figure 1) (National Geo-Spatial Intelligence Agency, 2015).
The area enjoys a hot semi-arid climate according to the Koppen climate classification system. The temperature of Katsina is usually high all year round with the highest values from the months of January to May being within 43°C to 56°C and the lowest values from the months of June to September about 12°C and again rises from the months of November and December being 63°C to 125°C (Climate Datasheet for Katsina state, 2012).
The vegetation of Katsina state is the Sudan Semi-Arid enriched with varieties of Grasslands, Shrubs, trees and the spare droughtresistant trees . Many of the trees are also resistant to fire as they are involved in Nitrogen fixation and also provide shades and nesting sites for animals. The predominant animals of the Sudan Savanna vegetation belt of Katsina are the Grazers, Kangaroos, Antelope, Rodents, birds, insects and reptiles. There is usually about 50-150 cm of rain per year which is not distributed evenly throughout the year .
The people of Katsina state are mainly agricultural and fishing society. They cultivate rice, yam, millet, Guinea corn, onions, tomatoes, sorghum, maize . Due to the availability of vast landmass, the people practiced large scale cultivation of crops and commercial agriculture . The people also engage in artisan fishing as there is the presence of several rivers and water bodies in the state. Also, trading, craft making such as the building of cane chairs, hats boat making, etc. to earn a living. These activities are tremendously important as they provide huge economic potential to the people of the area. A huge amount of revenue is generated and the people in the rural areas depend on the revenues from them. The people also engaged in wanting wildlife, lumbering and local craft production. The people also engaged in a local cottage industry in which they produced goods that are sold to the outside world. They produced groundnut, groundnut oil and sugar. These activities the Katsina people engage in are activities that can easily be affected by climate change. This research adopted a cross-sectional research design. The data for this study were generated from the administration of a questionnaire on respondents in the study area. As for the
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