With space flight (SF) significant reductions of serum Mg (P < 0.0001) despite poor serum sensitivity, shown in spacecraft crew members. Mg, a robust antioxidant and calcium blocker; with SF, there's oxidative stress, insulin resistance, inflammatory conditions; in experimental animals significant endothelial injuries to mitochondria, reductions in transferrin and in turn oxidative stress. Inhalation of Lunar iron (Ir) particulate contributes to worry test - hypertension on Earth return (ER): James Irwin’s vital sign (BP) 275/125 after 3 minutes of exercise (ER); Neil Armstrong showed very high diastolic BP 160/135 on ER, consistent with impaired cardiac function. Magnet (M) studies useful on moon; similarly, M studies on Earth wont to quantitate high indoor Ir levels. Since over 90 you look after brakes made from Ir, combination Ir brake dust inhalation and Mg deficiencies in over 60% U.S. population, may be important factors intensifying worldwide hypertension.
Space flight (SF) and mud inhalation in habitats cause hypertension whereas in SF (alone) there's no consistent hypertension but reduced diurnal vital sign (BP) variation instead. Current pharmaceutical subcutaneous delivery systems are inadequate and there is impairment in the absorption, metabolism, excretion, and deterioration of some pharmaceuticals. Data obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Freedom of Information Act shows that Irwin returned from his 12-day Apollo 15 mission in 1971 and was administered a bicycle stress test. With just three minutes of exercise, his BP was >275/125 torr (heart rate of only 130 beats per minute). There was no acute renal insult. Irwin's apparent spontaneous remission is usually recommended to be associated with the rise of a protective vasodilator, and his atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reduced with SF due to reduced plasma volume. With invariable malabsorption and loss of bone/muscle storage sites, there are significant (P < 0.0001) reductions of magnesium (Mg) required for ANP synthesis and release. Reductions of Mg and ANP can trigger pronounced angiotensin (200%), endothelin, and catecholamine elevations (clearly shown in recent years) and harsh cycles between the latter and Mg deficits. There is proteinuria, elevated creatinine, and reduced renal concentrating ability with the potential for progressive inflammatory and oxidative stress-induced renal disease and hypertension with vicious cycles. After SF, animals show myocardial endothelial injuries and increased vascular resistance of extremities in humans. Even without dust, hypertension might eventually develop from renovascular hypertension during very long missions. Without sufficient endothelial protection from pharmaceuticals, a comprehensive gene research program should begin now.
Note: This work is partly presented at 25th World Cardiology Conference July 01-02, 2019 held at Osaka, Japan.