Journal of Pollution

ISSN: 2684-4958

Open Access

Atmosphere has No Energy as It is Balanced between Gravity and Full Vacuum Universe: A Mini-Review


Rajendra SP

It should be agreed that all objects like planets, stars etc. float in the full vacuum universe. It should also be agreed that atmosphere possessed by these objects is due to gravity and the atmosphere is in the open system full vacuum universe. Here, air molecules always try to escape in full vacuum universe against gravity to have uniformity in the universe. Means it is balanced between gravity and full vacuum universe. It is in science textbooks that the Earth’s atmosphere exerts pressure. But, to have pressure in the system, it must be isolated by boundary and its value is same at any point within. Here, Earth’s atmospheric air neither uniformly distributed nor in a closed system. It is known that gravity is holding each air molecule towards the Earth. On surface, air has high-density molecules and as further go away molecules density decreases. This density difference is balanced between gravity and full vacuum universe. This paper uncovers the misconception regarding Earth’s atmosphere exerts pressure due to its air molecules vertical column mass. To prove the argument, the manometer experiment is visited. In this experiment author makes the effort to raise mercury filled tube up against gravity above pot level then inverts it. Here, mercury level drops because of gravity which creates a vacuum in the top of the tube. This causes reduced surface energy inside wall of the tube. To be in the equilibrium state with outer tube wall, inner wall surface tries to suck in all direction that holds mercury up against gravity that means tube mercury weight is balanced by vacuum and that is demonstrated.

Keywords: Atmosphere; Gravity; Open system earth; Air molecules; Homogeneous state; Manometer; surface energy; Absolute pressure; Vacuum intensity; Full vacuum universe


Galileo had observed that water is not rising in an exhausted tube to a height greater than thirty-three feet, but he was not able to offer a satisfactory explanation of the phenomenon. He believed that there is something in a suction side that balances the weight of water [1]. In 1643 Torricelli had demonstrated that the height at which the water stood depends upon nothing but its (let’s say mercury) weight as compared with the weight of air vertical column outside. Here, it is noted that tube was filled with mercury and raised against gravity was by Torricelli. So, work was already done by himself and not by the atmosphere. To elaborate more, refer to the Figure 1. Here, two different radius pots with same radius tube experiment demonstrated. If the atmosphere has pressure to raise mercury against gravity, Mercury in right tube (pot radius 200 mm) must rise higher than the left side tube (pot radius 100 mm). But this is not the case, So, Torricelli’s argument is wrong on why mercury shows 760 mmHg reading every time on Earth surface.

Literature Review

Let us consider different situations where mercury manometer is elevated/lowered against Earth’s sea level. Firstly put two manometers as per Figure 1. Here, left-hand side mercury manometer pot has less exposed surface area compared to right-hand side manometer pot. So, as per Torricelli’s principle, the force exerted by the atmosphere on right side pot is more. It means it has to raise more mercury than left side against gravity if atmosphere has a pressure to do work. Here, mercury is raised against gravity by the author by taking closed end up to invert the filled tube. So, work already done to elevate mercury against gravity. It is same analogy as injection fill up by efforts taken to create a vacuum at back side ass per Figure 2a. If the tube is of bigger dia and long enough mercury drops due to gravity that creates a vacuum on top of the tube tries to suck in all direction that holds mercury up against gravity. Another experiment can be done with the conical transparent manometer. Here Mercury level will be less compared to standard as per Figure 2b. Which reduces inner wall surface energy. To be in equilibrium with tube outer wall in all surfaces, inner wall surface tries to suck direction. Here, it is clearly visible that walls bulge inside due to gravity works to lower mercury level [2]. Now, consider manometer kept on Mt. Everest. Here, mercury will rise low compared to sea level. That is because tube wall faces have less surface energy difference. Here, inside wall having full vacuum has lower surface energy compared to outside wall having low density atmosphere. A lab experiment can be demonstrated by creating partial pressure in the closed container and putting manometer inside it. Here, vacuum intensity inside the tube is less. Now, consider a tin closed in outer space (Figure 3a). Here, both side molecule densities are very less and same. Once it is released, Earth gravity takes it to dense atmosphere (Figure 3b). Here, gravitational energy is used to increase the tin outer wall surface energy by taking tin to higher density air. To be in equilibrium between inner and outer wall surface, the outer wall gets crushed to have a concave surface (reduced surface energy). Now consider open tin is kept at sea level on Earth (Figure 3c). Here wall both side surface energy is higher and equal. When air is pumped out from tin, pump works to reduce inside wall surface energy (Figure 3d). So, it gets crushed inside to have a convex surface (surface energy increases) to get equilibrium with outer wall. Now consider the tin with atmospheric air inside and lowered in water. Here, tin is lowered against buoyancy of fluid in support of gravity by the author. So, surface energy increases at outside wall by outside water is a result of external work done by the author.



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